USING DRAMA TECHNIQUES AS A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO FOREIGN LEARNERS IN THE CLASSROOM OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Unfortunately, many of our students graduate from secondary schools with no English at a satisfying level, except a few simple phrases with lowering of self-esteem and confidence. These problems come from teachers’ little awareness that the aim of teaching English as a foreign language is shifted from grammatical teaching to communicative teaching, and this shift requires the use of modern methods of teaching involving the drama techniques to achieve this aim. The current theoretical research aims at highlighting the role of the drama techniques approach in teaching English integrating it with their traditional approaches of teaching.
This study hypothesizes that teaching English through drama techniques approach can help teachers achieve better results, vitalize the classroom, motivate both teachers and students, and have more fun. The significance of this study is to inform the present and the future teachers of the secondary schools the benefits of the integration of drama techniques with other methods in the classroom.
The current study is divided into five sections. Section one presents an introduction to the drama, its definition and how its techniques have been used in the field of education. Section two presents the literature review about the using of drama techniques in teaching English. Section three presents a brief study of the general concept of the Communicative Approach and its activities. Section four concentrates on the definition of drama techniques approach, its techniques and importance in teaching English. This section also presents some advices to teachers in introducing drama techniques, preparing for a play, and the actual performance. Section five presents a conclusion that using drama techniques in the classroom improve students’ speech, communication and presentation skills, build their confidence, develop their critical thinking, engage them in a creative problem- solving and decision, develop their physical and emotional skills and encourage teamwork and co-operation. Finally, this research ends with a list of references in addition to Arabic and Kurdish synopsis.
Abrams, M. H., & Harpham, G. G. (1999). A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston, Mass: Thomson Wadsworth.
Ashton-Hay, S. (2005). Drama: Engaging all Learning Styles. Proceedings 9th International INGED (Turkish English Educational Association) Conference. Economics and Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. Retrieved on November 11th., 2018, from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/12261/1/12261a.pdf
Barnes, Douglas (1968). Drama in the English Classroom. Champaign, illinios: national Council of Teachers of English
Blatner, A. (2002). Role Playing in Education. Retrieved on May 13th, 2018 from http://www.blatner.com/adam/pdntbk/rlplayedu.htm
Burke, A. & O'Sullivan, J. (2002). "Stage by Stage: A Handbook for Using Drama in the Second Language Classroom": Retrieved on May 13th, 2018 from http://www.heinemann.com.
Chauhan, V. (2004). Drama Techniques for Teaching English. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. X, No. 10, (3). Retrieved on May 13th, 2018 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chauhan-Drama.html
Coney, R. & Kanel S., (1997) Opening the World of Literature to Children through Interactive Drama Experiences. The Association for Childhood Education International Annual Conference
Culham, Cameron. R. (2003). "Making the conversations possible: Drama as a methodology in developing the language of the everyday in ESL classrooms". University of Victoria.
Demircioglu, S.(2010). Teaching English Vocabulary to young learners via drama. Faculty of Education, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Retrieved on July 4th, 2018 from: www.sciencedirect.com
Desiatova, L. (2009). Using Different Forms of Drama in the EFL Classroom. Humanising Language Teaching Magazine, issue 4. Retrieved on May 13th, 2018 from http://www.hltmag.co.uk/aug09/sart07.htm
Dickinson, Dee.(2002). “Learning Through the Arts.” New Horizons for Learning. Seattle: New Horizons for Learning.
Dougill, J. (1987). Drama Activities for Language Learning. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London.
Edmiston, Brian, and Jeffrey D. Wilhelm (1998). Imagining To Learn: Inquiry, Ethics, and Integration Through Drama. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Farmer, David (2010). What Are Drama strategies? Retrieved on May 17th, 2018 from http://dramaresource.com/strategies>
Farmer, David (2011). Learning Through Drama in the Primary Years. Published by Lulu, Illustrations © David Hurtado
Feden, Preston, and Robert Vogel, (2003). “How the Human Brain Learns is the Basis for New Teaching.” Retrieved on May 17th, 2018 from
Fleming, M. (2006). Drama and language teaching: the relevance of Wittgenstein’s concept of language games. Humanising Language Teaching Magazine, issue 4. Retrieved on May 17th, 2018 from http://www.hltmag.co.uk/jul06/mart01.htm
Fleming M. (2013). “Drama” in Byram. M. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. London, Nitra.
Gomez, David Izquierdo (2010). "Using drama to improve oral skills in the ESL classroom". International Schools JournalVol XXX No.1 November 2010.
Hassan, Fatimah Rashid and Omar Fouad Ghafor (2014). Assessing the Suitable of “Sunrise” Programme to the Kurdish Learners of the Seventh Basic Grade in the Schools of Erbil City. Journal of Teaching and Education, University of Halabja, Iraq.
Hayes, Suanne, Karbowska, (1984) Drama as a second language: A practical Handbook for language teachers. National Extension College.
Hoetker, James (1969). Dramatics and the teaching of literature. Champaign, Illinios: National Council of Teachers of English. ERIC clearinghouse on the teaching of English.
Holden, Susan. (1981). Drama in Language Teaching. Longman:19 West 44th Street, New York,
Kao, S. M. and O' Neill, (1998). Words into Worlds: Learning a second language Through Process Drama. Stamford, London: Abbex.
Kodotchigova, M., A., (2001) Role play in Teaching culture: Six quick steps for classroom implementation. Retrieved on May 17th, 2018 from http://iteslj.org/techniques/kodotchigova-Roleplay.html
Koyluoglu, Nihal (2010). Using Drama in Teaching English for Young Learners. Selcuk University, Social Science Institute, Department of Foreign Languages Teaching English Language Teaching, Turkey.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1990). Language Teaching Methods: Communicative Approach. Video, Retrieved on May 24th, 2018 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kRT-rsKxn4
Lawson, James R.(2001). “Brain-Based Learning”. Retrieved on June 11th., 2018, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/brainbased/start.htm
Livingstone, C. (1985). Role Play in Language Learning. Harlow: Longman.
Maley, A. and Duff, A. (1982). Drama Techniques in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mambrol, Nasrullah (2017). Literary Theory and Criticism: Literary Criticism of John Dryden. Retrieved on June 11th., 2018, from https://literariness.org/2017/11/17/literary-criticism-of-john-dryden/
Moore, Mandie M. (2004). Using Drama as an Effective Method to Teach Elementary Students. Senior Honors Theses. 113. Eastern Michigan University. Retrieved on November 11th., 2018, from http://commons.emich.edu/honors/113
Masoumi-Moghaddam, Saman (2018). Using Drama and Drama Techniques to Teach English Conversations to English as A Foreign Language Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature. Department of English Language Literature, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran
Perry, Bruce (2004). “How the Brain Learns Best.” Instructor Magazine. Retrieved on June 11th., 2018, from
Phillips, S. (2003). Drama with children. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Richards, Jack (1985) "Conversational competence through role play". RELC Journal 16:1
Richards, Jack C. and Theodore S. Rodgers (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press
Rives, Wilga (1983) Drama in the development of oral spontaneous communication.
Shraiber, Elena and Elena Yaroslavova (2016). Drama Techniques in Teaching English as a Second Language to University Students. South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation
Sofi-Karim, Mahdi (2015). English Language Teaching in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The School of Education of Webster University
Soleymani, Mohammad Reza and etal (2017). Comparison of the Effects of Storytelling and Creative Drama Methods on Children's Awareness about Personal Hygiene. Journal of Education and Health Promotion.
Ulas, A. H. (2008). Effects of Creative, Educational Drama Activities on Developing Oral Skills in Primary School Children. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 5. Retrieved on November 11th., 2018, from http://thescipub.com/PDF/ajassp.2008.876.880.pdf
Via R.( 1985). Drama & Self in Language Learning. The English Teaching Forum
Wagner, B. J. (1998). Educational Drama and Language Arts: What Research Shows. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.
Žero, A. (2014). Learning by doing: A methodological framework on teaching EFL to preschoolers. In Krawiec, M. (Ed.) Cross-curricular dimensions of language learning and teaching. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-utilize of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and referring to the source for individuals use.
Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.