Journal of Duhok University <h5 class="header col s12 light">UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal consists of three Sections : Humanities and Pure, &nbsp;Engineering Sciences and Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp; Science. Each Volume&nbsp; within section&nbsp; is written in Kurdish, Arabic and English.&nbsp;</h5> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> SEROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF TOMATO MOSAIC VIRUS IN SOIL AND SEEDS OF TOMATO PLANTS IN DUHOK PROVINCE <p><strong><em>Tomato mosaic virus</em> (ToMV) is one of the most important viruses on tomato; contaminated soil may be the main source and reservoir of transmission. Diseased plants were collected from Kamona and Xanike villages, Duhok province. DAS-ELISA technique its detection in the soil and contaminated seeds, and clarify the virus transmission from contaminated seeds to seedlings. Using indicator plants (Biological detection) was to identify virus from contaminated soil. The result showed that six samples out of 14 soil samples gave a positive reaction with 42.8% is transmission ratio from soil.</strong> <strong>Symptoms on indicator plants such as: &nbsp;mosaic, malformation, vein clearing on<em> C. qinoa</em>; the stunted plants with localized necrotic lesions and malformation on pepper plants. DAS-ELISA from tomato seeds displayed in 11 samples out of 18 samples revealed strong reactions and seeds transmission proportion were 61%. Seedlings were germinated from 60 infected tomato seeds under plastic house condition but only 4 transplants exhibited ToMV symptoms of mosaic, and the percentage of transmission was 7.8%.</strong></p> NABEEL AZIZ KASSIM WAZEER ALI HASSAN VIYAN JAMEEL HACI Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 22 2 1 8 10.26682/ajuod.2019.22.2.1 EFFECT OF SOME EDAPHIC FACTORS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-NECKED FIELD MOUSE (Apodemus flavicollis argyropuli) IN FIELD CROP BIOTOPES <p><strong>Accurate conservation and management of yellow-necked field mouse requires ecological knowledge of its habitat. In the present research study, we tried to assess the effect of some edaphic factors (soil texture, organic matter, CaCO3, bulk-, and particle densities, and porosity) as independent variables on the burrow structures (pathway length, total length, depth, and secondary entrances), as dependent variables. Regression models was carried out on 25 burrows distributed on 5 suffered locations from the species damages (Sumail, Girshin, and Faishkhabour in Duhok; and Engineering College fields, and Shawis in Erbil).</strong></p> <p><strong>Two types of burrows (simple: only main entrance, and complex:</strong> <strong>has a main entrance and one or more secondary entrances or tunnel branches), and three types of burrow distribution (Insular, Cumulative, and Unequal) were identified in studied areas, which can be turned to the soil features and the quantity, quality as well as the distribution of food sources. The results of this study indicate the following main interaction correlations: Negative correlations have been found between organic matter and porosity; (silt) <sup>4</sup> positively correlated with pathway length; organic matter and bulk density negatively- but (silt) <sup>3</sup> and CaCO3 positively correlated with total length; the number of secondary entrances and sand positively- while CaCO3 and bulk density negatively correlated with the depth; sand and silt positively- but CaCO3 and porosity negatively correlated with the number of secondary entrances. Pearson correlation coefficients showed the strongest positive correlation between the total length and pathway length, as well as between clay and organic matter; and the strongest negative correlation between bulk density and porosity.</strong></p> <p><strong>Our findings could provide additional habitat information for integrating management tools, with a particular focus on the relationships between effective dependent and independent factors</strong></p> AMIN A. KHEDHER AKRAM A. KHALAF Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 22 2 9 24 10.26682/ajuod.2019.22.2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBINED INSECT TRAP FOR WHITEFLY (Bemisia tabaci) AND TOMATO LEAF MINER (Tuta absoluta) MANAGEMENT <p><strong>Whitefly <em>Bemisia tabaci </em>and tomato leaf miner <em>Tuta absoluta</em> are two important insects that are causing serious damage to crops in protected vegetable cultivation. There is an international call from scientists to find a non-chemical way to manage those pests. This study tested the effect of a new combined light trap with different colors, named GLT trap, on the management of whiteflies and tomato leaf miners in protected vegetable cultivation. The results showed that whiteflies are significantly attracted to the yellow light traps (828 insects) compared to (73 insects) on white traps which captured the least number of insects. Although whitefly is diurnal, a higher number of insects were captured by the yellow-light colored traps (910 insects) than both yellow traps without light (302 insects) and light without color (51 insects) in 6 days. This showed the superiority of GLT trap over the yellow traps by about three times and about 20 times more than light traps without colors. In addition, a higher mean number of leaf miners were captured by yellow traps (14.33), and the lowest number of insects (3.5) was captured on violate traps. The new GLT trap is a promising IPM mean to manage those important insects in greenhouses in both developed and developing countries. It is an inexpensive, effective, and homemade way to control whiteflies and tomato leaf miners without negative consequences</strong></p> MOHAMMED SAEED MIRZA MIRZA ABDI IBRAHIM ABDI ABDI Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 22 2 25 36 10.26682/10.26682/ajuod.2019.22.2.3 ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS AND HETEROSIS IN MAIZE BY USING HALF DIALLEL CROSS <p><strong>A half diallel cross compression six purelines of maize (DKEC6022, ZP-197, Sargrin, IK58, </strong><strong>Vegasfrun</strong><strong>, ZP-595) was carried out, the purelines and their hybrids planted in 5 July 2018 at the field of college of agricultural engineering sciences, university of Duhok. Using randomize complete block design with three replicates to studies heterosis and genetic parameters. The result showed significant difference among parent and their crosses for all characters. The combining ability analysis of variance results indicated that mean square of genotypes, general and specific combining ability was significant for all traits indicated that the presence of additive and non-additive gene effects controls all traits.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;The parents Sargrin had the highest value for the yield components and the hybrid (IK58 x Vegasfrun) exhibit significant average performance and give the highest heterosis for grain yield 89.5% and yield 230.379 g). the heritability broad sense was high for days to 75% tasseling and silking, plant and height, leaf area, No. of rows/ear, No. of grain/ row, kernels weight/ear, weight of ear and shelling percent</strong></p> DR. MOHAMMED ALI HUSSAIN HUSSAIN REZGAR IDREES SAAED SAAED DR. HAJER S.A. ASKANDAR ASKANDAR ABBAS ALO KHCTHER KHCTHER Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 22 2 37 48 10.26682/ajuod.2019.22.2.4 EFFECT OF LICORICE ROOT EXTRACT AND HUMIC ACID ON YIELD CHARACTERS OF SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepoL.) <p>Field experimentwas indicated at the experimental vegetable farms, college of agriculture, Duhok University,Kurdistan region-Iraq during the spring growing season of 2018, to evaluate the impact of licorice root extract (0, 5, 10 g.L<sup>-1</sup>) and humic acid (0, 2, 4 g.L<sup>-1</sup>) as foliar exerciseon yield traits of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) (cv.Naji F1).These experiments were laid out in a factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design(F-RCBD) with three replications.The results of this experiment showed that foliar spray of squash plants with licorice root extract at 10g.L<sup>-1</sup> recorded highest value in most of yield traits and in terms the early yield (0.389kg.plant<sup>-1</sup>) was significantly increased. Moreover, spraying plants with humic acid atlevel 2g.L<sup>-1</sup> the yield characters of squash plants was significantly increased in traits of early yield (0.383 kg.plant<sup>-1</sup>)and marketable yield (34.86 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup>), while humic acid spray at level 4g.L<sup>-1</sup> significant affect on fruit number (13.81), fruit length (14.14 cm), fruit diameter (3.65cm),&nbsp; average fruit weight (123.41gm), total yield (1.707 kg.plant<sup>-1</sup>) and total yield (39.61ton.ha<sup>-1</sup>), except the unmarketable yield (4.656 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup>) were decreasedwith increasing the level of humic acid.In addition, the combination treatments between licorice root extract at 10g.L<sup>-1</sup> and humic acid at 4g.L<sup>-1</sup> gave the highest value in the most of yield parameters in studied summer squash plants</p> PSHTWAN J. M. AL-ZEBARI TAHA Z. SARHAN Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-16 2020-02-16 22 2 49 60 7DETERMINATION OF HEATING VALUE OF QUERCUS AEGILOPS AND POPULUS NIGRAGROWING IN KURDISTAN-IRAQ FOR AN EFFECTIVE WOODY BIOMASS UTILIZATION <p><strong>The heating value in two hardwood species and their lignin content had been carried out to determine the best species for woody biomass utilization in Amedi District/Duhok/ Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The study aimed to find out the relationship between the species, diameter of trees and the parts of tree with the heating value, lignin content, basic density and moisture content. 18 trees were felledand the number of samples were 54. The values of heating value ranged from 10.08 MJ/kg from the bark of a large diameter tree in <em>Populusnigra</em> to 22.69 MJ/kg from the branch of a large diameter tree of <em>Quercusaegilops</em>. The study revealed a significant differences in the means of heating value in species, classes, and parts of trees (P&lt; 0.05). The mean of lignin was higher in the branchesfollowed by the wood and bark which gave close values. Accordingly, residual biomass, broken branches, limbs, and barks of trees are the best resources for aneffective utilization of woody biomass</strong></p> RONAK AHMED HASSAN DR. MOHAMMED AMIN TAHA Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-16 2020-02-16 22 2 61 70 GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) TO DIFFERENT RATES OF CHARCOAL AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZER IN ERBIL, KURDISTAN REGION-IRAQ <p><strong>This study investigate the influence of different levels of charcoal and inorganic fertilizer on the some growth and yield parameters of flax crop. The study conducted in GrdarashaField which is belong to the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University – Erbil in the 2017 – 2018growing season. Charcoal has not been yet applied as a fertilizer in flax field and any crops in Kurdistan, therefore its potential effect has been investigated for the first time in this study. Interaction among charcoal and potassium at the rate of (800g/m<sup>2</sup> and 60kg/ha), respectively were caused to significantly improve some growth and yield parameterssuch as plant height, technical stem length, total fresh yield and dry stem yield by the about (63.4cm, 46.3cm, 11.5 t/ha and 3.5 t/ha), respectively. Additionally, potassium alone especially at the rate of 60kg/ha showed an impact role to provide high value of both growth and yieldstudied characteristics. On the bright of the results, anopportunity could be seento do more researchesin the future about the effects of charcoal and inorganic fertilizers not only on flax but also on other crops.</strong></p> RABAR FATAH SALIH GARILLA ANWAR OSMAN LAWEST HAMED AZIZ Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-19 2020-02-19 22 2 71 80 LOCAL SHEEP SKELETON PREPARATION: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW PRESERVATION TECHNIQUE <p><strong>Cracking, crumbling, non-pleasant smell and changing bone color during and after bone preservation are the most common issues in the former skeleton models’ preparation.</strong></p> <p><strong>This qualitative-experimental project presents a new technique by mixing between a number of the old techniques of preservation of the skeleton models viathe below four main steps: First, boiling the bones with tap water and degreasing with a detergent. Then, drying naturally under sunlight. Afterward, boiling with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Finally, re-attaching and installation of the final skeleton model on a wooden plate. </strong></p> <p><strong>The vertebrae was articulated with each other in their main anatomical positions. The ribs were fixed with the thoracic vertebrae. The mandible was attached to the skull, and the skull was installed into the vertebral column. The fore- and hind-limbs were assembled; the scapula was attached with the ribs and the femur with the pelvic bone at the acetabulum. Finally, the carpal, tarsus, patella, and sesamoid bones were assembled and fixed in their main anatomical positions. The final installed skeleton formed with desirable white color, with no foul smell, no crack and crumble and highly tolerable to cold and hot temperature.</strong></p> <p><strong>The present study Proposed that prepared sheep skeleton model can be used to promote the veterinary students' comprehension for the anatomy courses since the method has been used in this study resulted in a high-quality skeleton model in its color, textureand tolerabilitywith no irritant foul smell</strong></p> RONAK SABER HABIB Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Duhok University 2020-02-19 2020-02-19 22 2 81 84