Journal of Duhok University <h5 class="header col s12 light">UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal consists of three Sections : Humanities and Pure, &nbsp;Engineering Sciences and Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp; Science. Each Volume&nbsp; within section&nbsp; is written in Kurdish, Arabic and English.&nbsp;</h5> en-US <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> (Mr. Sidqi Mohammed Suliman Yassen) Mon, 25 Nov 2019 17:45:03 +0000 OJS 60 THE POETIC IMAGE OF COLLECTION OF POEMS OF MOAYED TAYEB “BLING DAMMA BRSEDBEEN “ <p><strong>This research is an attempt to analyze the artistic image of the poems included in the poetic collection of the poet Muayad Tayeb</strong> <strong>Bling Damma Brsedbeen “</strong><strong>.&nbsp; It is certain that the subject of this research is now an important and exciting area in the literary criticism due to the fact that this subject is an important literary genre and a major component of time in poetry .</strong></p> <p><strong>What we see in this poetic collection is the poet's attempt to embody many themes, meanings and references, both directly and indirectly in this literary genre. </strong></p> <p><strong>This research is an attempt to enrich the library of Kurdish literary criticism, specifically in the field of application</strong></p> <p><strong>In this research, the researcher explained the subject of the poetic art image in terms of concept, definition, importance and its genres in theoretical way and then the researcher worked on the analysis of these species</strong><strong>&nbsp; </strong><strong>&nbsp;in a practical way to the contents of those texts poetic</strong></p> <p><strong>In conclusion, the researcher reached the results of the most important is that all the images in these poetic texts is a direct expression of the suffering and tragedies of the Kurdish nation in addition to the existence of a large range of live scenes and constant, which embodies the struggle of the Kurdish people</strong></p> DR. NOZAD ABDULLAH HAJI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYZING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES IN THE KURDISH DICTIONARY: JUDY DICTIONARY AS A SAMPLE <p><strong>Lexicology is important for any language in order to know that language and preserve it particularly when the dictionary is written in two languages and this is one of the important requirements to compile a dictionary.Besides tackling lexicology, types of dictionaries, showing the scientific fundamentals of dictionaries, this research is an academic attempt to identify dictionary shortcoming in terms of form and content in Kurdish in order to be a basic dictionaries in Kurdish. Thus, a two language dictionary was taken as a sample, i.e. Judi dictionary.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DR.SULAIMAN ISMAIL RAJAB, DR.ARAAL AHMED, DR.HUDAABDULQADER QASIM Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 01:36:51 +0000 HUMANITARIAN OF THINGS IN THE NOVEL OF ”ATRA” BY DEYAR EREDING <p><strong>one of them. His novel 'Atra' is one the works that has been written in a new and attractive style.&nbsp; The interesting thing in the novel is that most of the characters, if not all, are animals, plants and things, all of them speak, think and In recent years, a number of young writers have appeared in Iraqi Kurdistan,&nbsp; Deyar Erediny is express their feelings, as Erediny gives them the features of human being, and that is what I mean by ‘humanization’. In Erediny’s&nbsp; world, everything is innocent, good and human, except for man himself. Although, narrating stories on the tongue of animals or making characters of things is not something new in literature, but in the novel "Atra" this has taken a wide space and, most importantly all things are human except human himself. And this is what made us believe that the subject deserves study and was the motivation to write this research. This study is an attempt to identify the reasons behind Erediny's style and this phenomenon in his novel. The hypothesis of this work is that there is a connection between the writer's thought and the social class that he belongs, and his novel. This study aims to prove that as same as the reification which was the result of the capitalist system, giving everything the features of human except human himself in Atra is a result of ugliness, bloody and terrorist actions of human being and crimes that he committed by the name of religion. All this could be a result of capitalism too. This study seeks to analyze the novel and to reach the results based on the critical views that are looking at the relationship between the literary text and the society, especially Lucian Goldman's theory of ‘structural structuralism’</strong></p> NAFEESA ISMAIL HAJI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 03:01:36 +0000 The Role Of The Internal Poetic Rhythem Highlighting The Poetic Meaning Of The (Malaye Jazeeri) Poetry (Mn D dl Kovana Hazam) As Model <p><strong>This paper entitled (The Role of Implicit Poetic Rhythm in Highlighting the Meaning of the Poetry) has been selected to explain the importance of implicit poetic rhythm and also to reveal the thought and poetic meaning.</strong></p> <p><strong>It is also aimed at showing the poet's coordination abilities in poetic rhythm, specially implicit rhythm and poetry meaning. Since the internal rhythm has been known as implicit rhythm covering a wide range of settings such as the phonetic, syllabus, word, and sentence.</strong></p> <p><strong>This paper is made up of an introduction and two sections, the first section dealt with the rhythm, poetic rhythm, and types of rhythm. The second section discussed the practical aspect of the role of the internal poetic rhythm in highlighting the poetic meaning of the (Malye Jazeeri) poetry (Mn D Dl Kovan Hazarn) as a sample. Accordingly, this paper based on theoretical analysis. It is worth-mentioning that the results and the references have been pointed out.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> HALEEMA KHORSHEED ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 03:08:54 +0000 SHOWING AND ANALYZING OF THE IMAGE SCHEMAS ( KURDISH READING AND GRAMMAR BOOK OF SIXTH GRADE OF BASIC SCHOOL ) AS A SAMPLE <p><strong>The aim of this research is to show and analyze the image schemas in Kurdish reading and grammar book of sixth grade of basic school as an example in cognitive linguistics context. The Image schema is a main theme of Philosophy, Psychology, and linguistics in cognitive linguistics. The image schema has its own significance; therefore, image schemas as a process of thoughts and language can show the basic concepts and initial complexities in an organized way. So, this topic has its own significance in educational and learning fields especially in the fields which are related to language and thoughts.</strong></p> <p><strong>This research tries to get the Image schemas of containment schemas, path schemas, force schemas of johnson, such as basic schemas in Kurdish reading and grammar book of sixth grade of basic school.</strong></p> DR.ABDULSALAM N. ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 03:23:57 +0000 REFLECTION OF THE MEANINGS OF THE WORDS (HALAL AND HARAM) IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE <p><strong>The words "Halal" and "Haram” are two words entered Kurdish culture through Islamic and Arab culture. These words are used in different contexts and have different meanings. This study, entitled (Reflection of the meanings of the words (Halal and Haram) in the Kurdish language) tries to study the concept of these two words in the Kurdish language with an attempt to explain and indicate semantics and pragmatics&nbsp; concept of these two words in the region of Bhdainan, according to descriptive analytical approach. The main objective of this research is to explain the use of the words "Halal" and "Haram” in the field of semantics and pragmatics. The research consists of two chapters. The first chapter is entitled "Halal and Haram, concept and culture", and it deals with definition of "Halal" and "Haram”, culture and the use of these words the dictionaries and literature, while the second chapter is devoted to clarifying the meanings of the word "Halal" and "Haram”</strong></p> DR..SHERZAD SABRI ALI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 03:55:37 +0000 The art of metaphore in the poems of baderkhan sindi’s divan (hozanet min) as a model <p><strong>The metaphor is the main focus of this research and metaphor in terms of language taking something from me something else, while in terms of the conversion of meaning from one word to another in the presence of analogy in its hidden structure and the importance of metaphor in the approximation qualities of the subject to be stronger impact on the self and the performance of rhetorical expression and create a new image.</strong></p> <p><strong>The metaphor is one of the main rhetoric arts which fall within the framework of rhetorical arts. This art is used extensively for the construction of the poetic language, where poetry schools of various kinds rely on metaphors in order to build their literary language. The poet Badrakhan Sindi belongs to any modern poetical school, a great echo in the literary circles, especially in the province of Dohuk, is a poet who adopted the arts of rhetoric to the systems of their logo, especially the art of metaphor. This study is devoted to the identification and analysis of the art of metaphor in his poetry, and this is to show how the use of this graphic art of various kinds in his poetry. The study was based on its identified debt (hozanit min) of Badrakhan Sindi. Through the study was identified metaphors and hidden metaphor in various types of poetry. This study is described as "the art of borrowing in the poems of Badrakhan Sindi Diwan, (Hozanit Min) as a model, an attempt to determine the art of borrowing in his poet's.</strong></p> DILDAR IBRAHIM AHMED, HALEEMA KHORSHEED ABDULLAH, ARAM YOUSIF IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Thu, 21 Nov 2019 04:07:06 +0000 Thanking Expressions in Kurdish Language <p><strong>Thanking is one of the most important verb of speech act in pragmatics. The present research entitled “Thanking Expressions in Kurdish Language” aims at investigating thanking expressions in Bahdenan area and preferred strategies used in certain occasions. The researcher adopted descriptive analytical approach and used statistic to reach the ratio of each strategy. </strong></p> <p><strong>The main aim of the present research is to specify the most preferred strategy used by the speakers and to specify the percentage of each strategy. The researcher has come up with many findings. The research consists introduction and two chapters. The first chapter deals with thanking and pragmatics and it contains the definition of thanking, its relation to pragmatics and thanking strategies. The second chapter deals with thanking expressions in Kurdish language.</strong></p> DR. SHERZAD SABRI ALI, AYADFAYZALLAH OTHMAN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Sat, 23 Nov 2019 23:48:58 +0000 SOME ASPECTS OF COLLOCATION IN KURDISH <p><strong>This study deals with some aspect of the phenomenon of collocation in Kurdish which is one of the fields of semantics.</strong></p> <p><strong>This field of study is very wide and comprehensiwe. It is confused with semantic fields, metaphor, polysemy, hyponymy and memronymy. The researcher has divided collocation into basic meaning and secondary meaning.</strong></p> <p><strong>In this study, only the basic meaning of collocation has been dealt with in order to conduct on independent study of collocation and enriching it from various prespechres by allocating and identifying some aspects for it such as sound meaning, social coexistence, movements, prophets and caliphs features, foods, fruits and some other short phenomena. It is to be noted that this study has an effective role in enriching the Kurdish language and lexicology.</strong></p> DR. ABDULLAH AZEEZ MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Sat, 23 Nov 2019 23:54:54 +0000 The Role Of The Moral Dimensions Of The Financial Crisis In Strengthening Foreign Direct Investment In The Framework Of Investment Indicators Fulfillment <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Given the importance of foreign direct investment in the economic and social development of countries, this research is looking for testing a new method for stating the foreign direct investment enhancement based on the ethical dimensions of the financial crisis through asking the question: How to regulate institutional and regulatory ethics that affect foreign investors' decisions and strengthen the mechanism of attracting their investments?</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research aims to address the theoretical framework of the financial crisis and direct foreign investment, then studying and analyzing foreign direct investment indicators that enhance its capabilities, through the logic that points to the importance of following personal, institutional and organizational ethics in order to support foreign direct investment, assuming that there is a significant correlation between the ethical dimensions of the financial crisis and the global investment indicators in the surveyed sample, as well as a significant effect to the dimensions of the financial crisis in the global investment indicators. Statistical analyzes, such as repetitive distributions, percentage ratios, and computational modes, and standard deviations of each of the main search variables were used to obtain a major result: there is a significant correlation relationship and a significant effect between the study variables. Research suggests the need to increase attention to ethics, especially the ethics of society, because they significantly affect the measurement of global investment indicators.</strong></p> PAYMAN MAMOON NOORULDEEN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:10:14 +0000 THE ROLE OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP PATTERNS IN ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL SYMMETRY "A EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE VIEWS OF A SAMPLE OF MEMBERS MEMBERS OF DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION ZAKHO <p><strong>The research aims to determine the role of autocratic leadership patterns in organizational symmetry among the members of Directorate of Education Zakho. The research presented a theoretical framework dealing with the variables of autocratic leadership, organizational symmetry, and practical framework in order to identify the nature of the correlation between the patterns of autocratic leadership as an independent variable and organizational symmetry as a dependent variable. This has been tested by the use of a set of analytical statistical methods such as arithmetical averages, standard deviations, Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression coefficient, T test, F test. The researchers reached a number of conclusions, the most prominent of which: There is a significant correlation and effect between the autocratic leadership and the organizational symmetry, This indicates that the possibility of increasing the level of organizational symmetry among the members through the practice of the administrative leaders in the investigated institution of the style of autocratic leadership. One of the most important proposals of the research: the continuous work to strengthen following of the administrative leaders in the investigated institution for the leadership style of Benevolent autocratic, because it works to develop the loyalty of subordinates and their sense of belonging to their organization, which will reflect positively in increasing levels of organizational symmetry</strong></p> ALI ABDULLATEF ABDULLAH, RUSH IBRAHIM MOHAMMED, MOHAMMED ABDULRAHMAN OMAR Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:28:01 +0000 SOCIAL SUPPORT AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SELF-CONFIDENCE OF WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS HANDICAPS <p><strong>The research aims to identify the social support and its relationship with the self-confidence of wheelchair basketball players with special needs, the researchers hypothesized that there is a relationship between social support and self - confidence for wheelchair basketball players with special needs. The researchers used the descriptive method of surveying and correlation relationship. The researchers identified the research community of disabled basketball players in the province of Babylon and the number (20) players, and a sample of research where (15) players and randomly selected and also (5) players for the exploratory experiment. The researchers then came to the conclusions that most basketball players have social support and good self-confidence. There is a direct correlation between social support and self-confidence. Addresses the relationship between social support and self-confidence and some other psychological variables and the need to conduct a comparative study between the variables for a number of individual and different sports</strong></p> ASSET. PROF. DR. FADEL KURDI AL-SHAMMARI, DR. AYMAN HANI AL-JUBOuri, NIVYAN YASSER ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Sun, 24 Nov 2019 03:35:30 +0000 THE EXTENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS RELIANCE ON THE USE OF ONLINE NEWSPAPERS IN ELECTION CAMPAIGNS <p><strong>This research is aimed to explore the public relation' extent to recruit electronic newspaper in election campaigns. As well as to explore its effects. For reaching this goal the research used analytical survey method through questionnaire alongside with following statistic tools and examine Interconnectivity between research sample which are the employees and head of political parties election offices, 140 participants between male and female, chosen by Preview of intentional randomization method.</strong><strong><br> The research concludes the following outcomes:</strong></p> <ol> <li><strong>The political parties' public relation administrators initially and mainly depending on electronic newspapers during election campaigns.</strong></li> <li><strong>The research proves the alternative hypothesis, which points out that there is the linkage relationship of statistical significance between PR worker's demographic variable in public relations and depending on electronic newspapers in election campaigns.</strong></li> <li><strong>The research proves the alternative hypothesis that there is the positive correlation relationship is a significant function between relying on electronic newspaper in election campaigns and motivation while that depending.</strong><strong><br> There are some recommendations as follows:</strong></li> <li><strong>As long as that the electronic newspaper is one of the main tools that public relation depends on in election campaigns. There is a necessity to organize the election campaigns more systematically in order to archive selected objectives.&nbsp;</strong></li> <li><strong>Take advantage of this research's achievements and focus on research on audiences.</strong></li> </ol> DR. OMARAHMED RAMADHAN, CHRO SHIAHAB MARIF Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 00:09:13 +0000 SOCIAL LIFE OF RETIREES FIELD STUDY OF A SAMPLE OF RETIREES IN THE CITY OF ERBIL <p><strong>This study was carried out on a group&nbsp;of (130) retirees of mixed gender in the city of Erbil. The main aim was to find out to find out the changes in the social life of retirees depending on age, gender, rank of previous jobs, and level of previous education, this research carried out depending on the social survey, the data collected on the basis of direct interviews with retirees and questionnaire, the conclusion of this search lead to understanding that the majority of&nbsp; retirees had major difficulties to amalgamate with the society and this associated with low pension income, lack of entertainment, lack of physical activities, lack of government&nbsp;schemes to look after retirees interest and health, all these factors lead the retirees to depression, dementia, suicide, and heart attack, various and urgent steps should be taken by authorities to build social clubs, health clinics, fitness clubs, social service teams, raising retirement age, and raising retirees wages&nbsp;.</strong></p> PARSHEN SADIQ MAROUF Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 00:19:45 +0000 RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICAL PATTERNS TO THE LEVEL OF SKILL PERFORMANCE OF THE FOOTBALL BEGINNERS IN DOHUK GOVERNORATE <p><strong>The study aimed at the identification of the percentage of the contribution and the prediction of physical patterns to the level of skill performance of the football beginners in Duhok Governorate.&nbsp; The researcher used the descriptive approach to the survey method for its suitability and the nature of the research.</strong></p> <p><strong>The sample of the research was deliberately chosen as they were football players from the teams of: Duhok, Zervani, Garah and Zakho. The sample was 82 players which stood for 74.54% of the research community. The rest of the players were excluded due to lack of attendance, Injury, and being goalkeepers.</strong></p> <p><strong>The researcher used the physical measurements to find the deterministic style, using Heath Carter- a method commonly used for its accuracy and objectivity. The researcher also employed the skills tests which selected football skills agreed upon by experts with the percentage of 75% and more.</strong></p> <p><strong>The most important statistical methods used are the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation of the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), the law of percentage, and self-honesty. The conclusions that the researcher has come up with are:&nbsp; the physical patterns contributed to the skill level of the football beginner in Dohuk Governorate, and most important contribution of physical patterns in the level of skill performance is muscle type</strong></p> ZAHRA JAMEL SALIH YOUSIF, DR.ODEED AUDESH OASY Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 00:53:07 +0000 THE INFLUENCE OF MARKETING AUDIT IN THE SUSTAINABLE OF COSTUMER LOYALTY <p><strong>The importance of research has been addressed from its variable’s importance, which is a relatively recent topics in the field of marketing specifically, and in theory the research is a modest contribution to the enrichment of literature relating to both marketing audit and sustainability of customer loyalty, but in practice is an attempt to identify the impact of marketing review in sustainability of customer loyalty in the field. The study aims to identify the nature of the correlation between the marketing audit and the sustainability of customer loyalty by studying the opinions of a sample of the managers of a number of telecommunications companies in the city of Duhok. The survey questionnaire was developed and used as a main tool for collecting data from the surveyed individuals, which reached (34) individuals. Using several statistical methods, the research hypotheses were tested. One of the most important conclusions was that "the marketing review has a positive and direct impact on the sustainability of the customer loyalty to the telecom companies in Duhok." The research also concluded a number of suggestions that the researcher considers suitable, In the process of marketing review and the submission of regular periodic reports in addition to reports to be submitted in exceptional circumstances.</strong></p> DILMAN KHOSHAVY, RAMADAN SHARAFANY Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 01:46:03 +0000 The Legal System For The Sale Of Real Property By Public Auction (A Study Within The Realm Of The Law Of Real Property Registration And The Law Of Executive) <p><strong>Basically, if the debt is due for performance, the debtor must fulfill it as soon as it is due, by voluntarily executing the obligation, but if the debtor fails to pay, the creditor is entitled to resort to the public authority with a view to interpolate or fulfilling his right from the debtor, One of these means is to foreclose the real estate of the debtor for the purpose of selling it by public auction.</strong></p> <p><strong>So to sale the real estate through public auction has a great importance since it achieves the interests of both parties, that is, it increases the chance of that the creditor is getting his full rights on one hand, and it protects the debtor by avoiding selling real estate his with low price on the other hand.</strong></p> <p><strong>In the Iraqi law, more than one hand sells the real estate of the debtor (the Directorate of Execution, The Real Estate Registration Department), in the event that certain conditions are met, but by reference to the provisions of the sale of real estate by public auction in the law of real estate registration, in accordance to the instructions of real estate registration, We find that the debtor may be oppressed in the event of selling his real estate in the second auction, as a result of non-compliance of these provisions with a certain allowance, that is, based on those provisions; the sale of the real estate in any allowance was not limited to the arrival of the allowance (70%) of the estimated value of the real estate when it is owned, Since this will be decided in the second auction, this may open the way for a collusion between the creditor and the auctioneer, this requires that the legislator interferes with the amendment of the articles (172 /4) &nbsp;of the Real Estate Registration Law as well as article (VII / 2 / B) of the real estate registration instructions by the arrival of the allowance to (70%) of the estimated value when the real estate is owned or repeal these articles and refer to Article (185) of the Iraqi Real Estate Registration, in order to lift the injustice and the slowdown that may occur</strong></p> Dr. SIPAL JAAFER HAJI OMER Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 02:00:35 +0000 MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON THE KALDOR'S MAGIC SQUARE VARIABLES IN SAUDI ARABIA USING THE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE OF AUTO-REGRESSIVE DISTRIBUTED LAG MODEL (ARDL) FOR THE PERIOD 1991–2017 <p><strong>The study aims to measuring and analyzing the effect of public expenditure on the variables of&nbsp; kaldor's magic square in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia based on the annual data of public expenditure as an independent variable and the number of dependent variables represented by (unemployment rate, inflation rate, economic growth rate and external balance) for a time series extending from 1991 to 2017, It was found during the study that the spending policy was characterized by high levels over time as a result of the expansion of the role of the government and its activities to effect on the economic and social life, and achieving the goals of the kaldor's magic square is not easy when there was improvement in some axes of the magic square, per contra&nbsp; there was a deterioration in other axes in the same year, The results revealed that the best period of delay for the variables (growth of public spending, unemployment rate and external balance) was one slowdown while zero for variables (inflation rate and economic growth rate) The results of the unit root test showed that the variables (growth of public expenditure, inflation rate, economic growth rate) were stable at the level, while the variables unemployment rate and external balance were stable at the first difference. After the Bounds test of co-integration, it was found that there is a long-term balance relationship between public spending and inflation, economic growth rate and external balance ; in addition, the short-term effect relationship was positive between public expenditure with (inflation rate, economic growth rate and external balance) and reverse with the unemployment rate; In the long term, the relationship of influence was positive between public expenditure and both the inflation and economic growth rate and inverse with both the unemployment rate and external balance; And through the statistical significance of the value the value (T) shows that public expenditure plays a large role in determining the level of inflation, economic growth rate and external balance. In the short term ; In the long term, public expenditure has played a large role in determining the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth</strong></p> IBRAHEEM MOHAMMED HUSSAIN, SUNDUS BAHJAT JAMEEL Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 02:23:55 +0000 THE CHARACTER BETWEEN READING TEXT AND VISUAL TEXT(2000-2017) <p><strong>Critics have addressed the definitions of the character&nbsp;&nbsp; in the literary woke from Aristo he to the present day . the perception of the character as a literary component differs according to different literary approaches but all agree&nbsp;&nbsp; that it is a major component&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; for the literary text . and the author depends on it to transfer part of his ideas to the reader or&nbsp; audience through the employment of different Kinds of characters with their conflicts in the text of the novel. </strong></p> <p><strong>In the cinema the characters go beyond what is in the narrative text , in which characters should be distinguished from others by styles , formal accessories, as well as the necessity of adapting to the lenses of the camera . And in this way , the character transforms&nbsp; simple dictions to a more realistic ones that we can face in our daily life's&nbsp;&nbsp; , which has&nbsp; its physical and psychological&nbsp; features , its own behaviors , its own way of expression that takes it from paper to screening of the character with tools that are basic to the cinematic work .</strong></p> <p><strong>This research studies the existence of characters in narrative and visual texts , the way they are . Pictured by the narrator , and how the filmmakers perceive this text and presently and present it, turning the characters to a group of&nbsp; living ones , moving on big screens as idea transformers for&nbsp; filmmaker , through this they expose to the audience the ideas of the author who created these characters .</strong></p> <p><strong>The paper is divided into two sections which are the basics in the differences between the existence of characters in both narrative and visual texts .</strong></p> <p><strong>The first section speaks about the external and internal components of the characters in the narrative and visual texts and how they are presented by the author or the film maker .</strong></p> <p><strong>As for the second section it deals with the different kinds of famous characters in literary criticism .</strong></p> Kawthar Mohammed Ali Jbara, Dr.(Diaa Abdul Razzaq Alani Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 02:47:20 +0000 EVALUATING THE TEACHING PERFORMANCE FOR THE STAFF MEMBERS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COLLEGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF STUDENTS <p><strong>The study aimed to identify the level of teaching performance of staff members in college of Physical Education at the University of Duhok, and to identify the significance of differences in the teaching performance of college members according to the variables of age, sex, grade and academic background (scientific - theoretic). The sample of the study included (140) male and female students selected by random stratified sample among the students of the college of Physical Education at the University of Duhok.</strong></p> <p><strong>The study was based on a questionnaire consisting of (34) paragraphs distributed over four areas (preparation and planning of the lesson, scientific research, measurement and evaluation, dialogue and discussion with students), and each paragraph has five alternatives to answer, after checking its psychometric properties.</strong></p> <p><strong>Data were processed using Pearson correlation coefficient, T-test of two independent samples, and mono-variance analysis.</strong></p> <p><strong>In conclusion, the results showed that the level of teaching performance of college staff members in general was moderate, and the results revealed that there are significant differences in the point of view for students on the teaching performance of college staff members due to the gender variable. The results did not show any significant differences in teaching performance from the students' point of view due to age, grade and background variables. According to the results, a set of recommendations and proposals were presented.</strong></p> Pro.Dr. Ahmed Qasem Mohammad, Sabri Sulaiman Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 03:07:35 +0000 THE COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE OF THE FEMALE PLAYERS IN FUTSAL IN THE KURDISTAN REGION – IRAQ <p><strong>The research aims to:</strong></p> <p><strong>- Putting an equation for effective performance during the matches, as an actual indicator to achieve the efficiency of the performance of female players in the Futsal in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>- Setting standards and standards for the effective performance parameters of the female players of the futsal in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>- The areas of research</strong></p> <p><strong>Human field: female players of the excellent class Futsal in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Time domain: for the period from 11/10/2017 to 51/10/2018</strong></p> <p><strong>Sphere: Hall halls in clubs that are covered in the Kurdistan Region.</strong></p> <p><strong>The researchers used the descriptive approach and determined the research community of the female players of the Futsal in the clubs participating in the excellent league in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The sample of the research was chosen deliberately and the sample consisted of 76 players out of 118 with a percentage of 64.41% Of the eight clubs and machines:</strong></p> <p><strong>Zirvani, Kara and Aqra from Dohuk governorate, Erbil girl (two parts in Erbil and one in Sulaymaniyah), Jihan University of Erbil, Dervaza, and Aphrodite from Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Halabja from Halabja governorate.</strong></p> <p><strong>The statistical bag (spss-24 and Microsoft office excel-2016) was used</strong></p> <p><strong>To find statistical means arithmetical mean, standard deviation, kay square test, simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), the standard method in constant number method (relay method), torsion factor, percentage, T-test for independent samples.</strong></p> <p><strong>The researchers reached the following:</strong></p> <p><strong>- A special equation was established to measure the effective performance factor of the female players, futsal which is based on the success and failure of the basic skills, taking into account the time of participation of the player in the matches.</strong></p> <p><strong>- Setting standards and standards for the effective performance parameters of the female players of the Futsal in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. </strong></p> PROF DR. MAJEED KHUDAYKHSH ASAD, JAMEEL AHMAD HUSSEIN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 04:36:54 +0000 IN THE NOVEL OF THE SKY IS EMPTY OVER OURSHALEEM BY SALEEM BARAKAT <p><strong>The title remains the identity of the text and its main tool, as it regards one of the keys of the naara live text as a cognitive, expressive and Semantic top the text with a known delivery device. </strong></p> <p><strong>The aims of the novelist ( Saleem Barakat ) emerged through his internal and external titles, Characterized by its poetry Sometimes and philosophy at other time and third their Connection with each other . Thus the novelist achieved all that he hoped through his various titles to embody the texts &nbsp;and their consistency with the title evoking an amazing ability in expressing the content of the text . &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> SAHL BAHAA AL-DEEN IBRAHEEM, DR. LATEEF MOHAMMED HASAN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 16:13:25 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL OF TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERN TEACHING METHODS IN THE PREPARATORY STAGE FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THEIR STUDENTS <p><strong>The current research aims at identifying the extent of evaluating the scientific potential of teachers and teachers of mathematics on the implementation of modern teaching methods in the preparatory stage from the point of view of their students. The sample consisted of (120) students with (55) male and (65) female. The researcher used statistical methods as Pearson correlation coefficient, relative weight, t-test for one sample and two independent samples, as well as statistical bag for social sciences (spss). After statistical analysis, The results showed the following:</strong></p> <p><strong>1 - There is a fairly acceptable proportion in general but not the level of ambition in the extent of the scientific potential of teachers and teachers of mathematics to implement modern teaching methods and according to the view of their students.</strong></p> <p><strong>2 - There is a medium percentage of the extent of the scientific potential of teachers and teachers of mathematics on the implementation of modern teaching methods and according to the view of students (males).</strong></p> <p><strong>3 - There is an acceptable percentage in the extent of scientific potential of teachers and teachers of mathematics on the implementation of modern teaching methods and according to the perspective of female students (female).</strong></p> <p><strong>4- There is a statistically significant difference between the male and female students' views on the extent of the scientific potential of teachers and teachers of mathematics on the implementation of modern teaching methods and for male students.</strong></p> <p><strong>The researcher came out with a set of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions. Recommendations for the establishment of advanced training courses by the Directorate of preparation and training to develop the capacity of teachers and teachers of mathematics to implement their scientific lessons in accordance with modern teaching methods</strong></p> VIYAN HASAN MOHAMMED, RAHMAH AHMED AFDEL Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 16:37:57 +0000 INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY:A MANAGERIAL PRACTICE TO ENHANCE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (AN EXPLORATIVE STUDY AT SELECTED HOTELS / ERBIL CITY) <p><strong>The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of information transparency as a managerial practice in enhancing employee engagement, in the context of hotels sector/</strong><strong> Erbil City</strong><strong>.</strong><strong> A survey self -administrated questionnaire was distributed on a sample of 80 managers </strong><strong>in the supervisory departments of </strong><strong>(12) five stars and four stars </strong><strong>hotels.</strong></p> <p><strong>T</strong><strong>he study </strong><strong>concluded that </strong><strong>there is a statistically significant impact of Information transparency on </strong><strong>employee engagement at the overall level and on the dimensions of employee engagement (</strong><strong>Emotional engagement, Cognitive engagement, Physical engagement</strong><strong>) with default &nbsp;significance at (P</strong><strong> ≤ 0.05)</strong><strong>.&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>The study presents a set of suggestions including the necessity of providing clear and two-way communication system between management and employees, and creating an organizational climate that encourages employees to participate in goals setting and decision-making</strong></p> DR. HADI KHALIL ISMAEL, Green MUSTAFA AMEDI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 17:12:56 +0000 DUHOK RIVER BASIN GEOMORPHOMETRIC AND ITS ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <p><strong>The Duhok river basin is located in its total area (399km 2) within the boundaries of limits to district of Duhok .one of the district of the province of Dohuk map NO/1/ The areas is geographically determined by mountain Zawa the sorth and Khabur basin the north and mountain bekher the west and khosar basin of the east and between the width circle (36-50-and 37-0-) longitude(42-50-and 43-10-) of the east.</strong></p> <p><strong>The objectives of the research is to study the geomorphometric characteristics of the area and the extent to which they can be utilized in different development field and sustainability. </strong></p> <p><strong>The research section is divided into third axes;The first of which is the study of the environmental characteristics of the area, The research contained in the second axis morphometric characteristics, While the last research concerned studying the problems and aspects of sustainable development through the investment of the possibilities of the ground area</strong></p> DR. NISHAN S. M Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 17:25:51 +0000 URBAN EXPANSION OF ERBIL AND THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DURING THE PERIOD 1947-2017 (A STUDY IN THE GEOGRAPHY OF CITIES) <p>..............</p> DR. NISHAN S. M Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 17:35:46 +0000 BOUNDARY DEMARCATION FOR A NEW STATE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW <p><strong>Boundary demarcation is one of the most important aspects of creating new states in the course of international public law. This issue is dealt with through two main problematic areas: on one hand, the existence of <em>uti possidetis</em> due to the phenomenon of colonialism, regarded as the rule of law (<em>jus cogens</em>), which is still valid to the present, and which causes many conflicts (particularly depriving indigenous peoples of their original boundaries). On the other hand, there is no obvious legal rule to bind concerned states to make a demarcation, and the laxity or non-control of a boundary creates a source of tension and a security threat for connected countries. This research mainly aims to render the boundary as a source of stability through encouraging the newly independent states to achieve the demarcation process as soon as possible, thus avoiding all relevant disputes. The findings of the paper show that it is necessary to provide adequate discretionary powers to the Joint Demarcation Commission (JDC)s, specifically those of new States, to overcome obstacles and difficulties for accomplishing demarcation’s practical steps accurately and in a sophisticated manner. Moreover, there are alternatives able to settle related disputes peacefully, in order to stabilise new countries, strengthen them, establish their infrastructures, and evolve cooperation relations based on good neighbourliness among respective states. Eventually, this will contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security</strong></p> DR. AYAD YASIN HUSEIN KOKHA Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University Mon, 25 Nov 2019 17:44:14 +0000