Journal of Duhok University 2021-12-23T06:52:22+00:00 Mr. Sidqi Mohammed Suliman Yassen Open Journal Systems <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> ESTIMATION SURFACE RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS OF HISHKARO BASIN, DUHOK GOVERNORATE USING SOME HYDROLOGICAL APPROACHES 2021-11-23T07:19:51+00:00 RAMADHAN HAMZA MOHAMMED test` <p><strong>An analysis of some hydrological characteristics specifically surface runoff of Hishkaro stream basin located in Duhok Governorate-Kurdistan Iraq was conducted. The available historical recorded rainfall data in Duhok and Zawita meteorological stations were used to calculate maximum daily rainfall using probability distribution for number of return periods. Natural resources conservation service method (NRCS) is used to estimate daily surface runoff at the outlet of the basin. Then runoff coefficient, monthly and annual surface runoff volume were predicted.&nbsp; A maximum daily surface runoff for different probability distribution and number of return period was calculated too which is an essential parameter in the design process of any future required hydraulic structures on Hishkaro stream</strong></p> 2021-10-26T07:53:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University USING UAVs IN DOCUMENTING CULTRUAL HERITAGE SITES - A CASE STUDY OF ZAKHO HISTORIC CITY IN KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ 2021-11-23T07:24:55+00:00 SHIREEN YOUNUS ISMAEL test` <p><strong>In the Kurdistan region, despite an abundance of its cultural heritage sites and lack of majority of these sites for 3D documentation, application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for cultural heritage documentation is still in its infancy. 3D Documentation of cultural heritage sites is among the most important initial steps of developing conservation and management plans of any cultural heritage site which necessitates accuracy of the documentation. </strong></p> <p><strong>There is lack of 3D documentation of valuable historic buildings and 3D models of historic areas that help setting guidelines for historic area development in most small cities. In contrast to that, there is a huge of infrastructure building activities carried out in the Kurdistan region since 2005, which is among one of the main reasons that have led to loss of many valuable heritage sites.</strong></p> <p><strong>The choice of documentation technique is always dependent on the site characteristics, the required accuracy, and the main goal of documentation. Nowadays, UAVs have become a staple of documentation technology due to their accuracy, time and cost factors, as well as high abilities. </strong></p> <p><strong>This research describes in detail the activities carried out using UAV for 3D documentation of the Zakho historic area and the Qishla historical building, which are both located in Zakho city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The UAV was used to collect, analyze and manage data using Agisoft Metashape Professional Software to produce point clued, orthomosaic, digital elevation model, and 3D models for the two sites.</strong></p> <p><strong>Finally, this paper discusses the potential of UAVs for cultural heritage site documentation in the context of KRI and how the advantages of this technology be gained before further loss of the richness and details of the cultural heritage sites</strong></p> 2021-10-26T07:58:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University SEASONAL FLUCTUATION OF LACE BUG Stephanitis pyri (F) (HEMIPTERA: TINGIDAE) IN ERBIL-IRAQ 2021-11-23T07:32:17+00:00 SARKAUT HUSSEIN MUHAMMED test` <p><strong>This investigation conducted during the two successive seasons 2012-2013 in orchards within Erbil city to follow seasonal fluctuation of <em>Stephanitis pyri</em>. <em>S. pyri</em> start appear in the first week of April and reached a peak level 13.90, 11.4 in third week of August for the two years respectively when the mean temperature was ranged 33-34°C and R.H. 24-29%. Correlation values for lace bug incidence with weather parameters showed that maximum and minimum RH had negative influence on lace bug population. The change in the level of infestation was due to difference in environmental temperature, relative humidity. Field investigation pointed out that the female’s activity of <em>S. pyri</em> began during the period from 1<sup>st</sup> week of April onward 4<sup>th</sup> week of October through which it laid their eggs</strong></p> 2021-10-26T08:02:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University NURSES’ PERCEPTION ABOUT PATIENT SAFETY CULTURE IN DUHOK HOSPITALS 2021-11-23T07:37:23+00:00 RONAK HASSAN BARWARI test` <p><strong>Background: Patient safety is one of the vital aspects that integrated to the health care system and patients’ outcomes. It is crucial to focus on the concept of patient safety to improve the health care services and the quality of care. The study was conducted to identify the variations in nurses’ safety attitudes based on their demographics.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 100 nurses working in teaching hospitals at Duhok City/ Kurdistan region/Iraq. The data was collected using two parts survey: The Safety Attitude questionnaire and the demographics. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software ver. 24, which included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with a P-values ≤ 0.05. </strong></p> <p><strong>Findings: The study revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in nurses’ safety attitudes based on their level of education. The level of education and team working were correlated, and a significant correlation was found between working conditions and with nurses’ experience. Moreover, the study represented that there is no significant correlation between leadership role with safety variables. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: It is crucial to assess the factors that contribute to patients safety. To improve the quality of care and safety attitude, nurse leaders and stakeholders play an important role. Nurse leaders support the safe environment at the units of care. Moreover, focusing on achieving a higher level of education is crucial and recommended to enhance the Patients outcomes</strong></p> 2021-10-26T09:49:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF SHARP CRESTED OBLIQUE WEIRS BY USING VEINS 2021-11-23T07:46:50+00:00 NAEEMA THAHER AAREF BAHZAD MOHAMMAD ALI NOORI <p><strong>The current research aims to get better performance and capacity of discharge of sharp crested oblique weirs by providing veins perpendicular to weir crest in order to deflect the water jet perpendicular to the weir axis. Seven weir models have been constructed and experimented in which the weir height and the oblique angle are kept constants as (P = 25cm) and (α = 40<sup>o</sup>), respectively, during the whole experimental work. Three oblique weir conditions are tested, the first one was testing oblique weir with no veins, while, the second condition was by providing one vein at the middle of crest length and changing vein height three times as (P<sub>v </sub>= 25, 20 and 15cm) and the third condition studied was by providing two veins to the oblique weir. From the study of surface profiles, it was realized that the maximum X-distance for the water depth above crest to become horizontal was X = 4.93h from the center of oblique weir with no veins, while, X = 4.59h for oblique weir equipped with one vein and X = 4.93h for oblique weir equipped with two veins (h = upstream water depth above crest). The results of discharge coefficient showed that the ratio of vein height to oblique weir height (P<sub>v</sub>/P) has a major role on increasing the discharge coefficient and it was observed that the ratio (P<sub>v</sub>/P = 0.6) offers the best performance of the weir. A straightforward power equation is recommended for the relation of (C<sub>d</sub>) with (h/P) for sharp crested oblique weir equipped with two veins with high correlation coefficient and low mean percentage error. The capacity of discharge of the oblique weir was increased by 69.6% for a weir equipped with one vein, while, the discharge capacity was increased up to 73.5% for a weir equipped with two veins. The limitations of this study are that testing one oblique angle and keeping the weir height as constant for the range of (h/P) between 0.08 and 0.32.</strong></p> 2021-10-26T09:57:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University A MODIFIED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD WITH GLOBAL-CONVERGENCE FOR UNCONSTRIANED OPTIMIZATION PROBEMS 2021-11-23T07:59:11+00:00 ASMAA M. ABDULRAHMAN test` BAYDA G. FATHI test` <p><strong>In this paper a new conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization is suggested, the new method is based on Conjugate Descent (CD) formula which is a modified of the CD formula and which is also sufficiently descent and globally convergent. Numerical evidence shows that this new conjugate gradient algorithm is considered as one of the competitive conjugate gradient methods.</strong></p> 2021-10-26T10:06:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY OF RMIL'S FORMULA FOR MINIMUM PROBLEM 2021-11-23T08:07:44+00:00 AHMED ANWER MUSTAFA <p><strong>In this paper, a new formula of </strong> <strong>&nbsp;is suggested for conjugate gradient method of solving unconstrained optimization problems based on depends on the creation and update of RMIL’S formula with the inclusion of a parameter and step size of cubic. Our novel proposed CG-method has descent condition and global convergence properties. Numerical comparisons with standard conjugate gradient algorithm of RMIL’S formula show that this algorithm very effective depending on the number of iterations and the number of functions evaluation.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VITAMIN D, CALCIUM, PARATHYROID HORMONE AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AMONG PATIENTS INVESTIGATED FOR VITAMIN D 2021-11-23T08:20:21+00:00 JAMAL BASHER MOHAMMAD test` <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in young children and Osteomalacia in adults.</strong></p> <p><strong>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, Calcium level and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), elevated in cases of low level of VD. This study to detect the relationship between serum VD, (PTH), calcium and ALP. Serum 25OHD is regarded as the best indicator of VD status. </strong></p> <p><strong>METHODS: The current study is a retrospective descriptive study in Azadi Teaching Hospital- Duhok Governorate – Kurdistan Region / Iraq. Out of </strong><strong>870</strong><strong> patients </strong><strong>were included in the study.</strong><strong> All VD requests were analysed, Calcium, ALP, PTH, and phosphate were recorded</strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of the requests were for females, and 27.9% of the included patients were receiving VD supplementation. The mean values for serum 25OHD and PTH levels were 34.5 nmol / L (13.8ng/ml) and 53.4pg / ml respectively. </strong></p> <p><strong>Serum 25OHD was below 25 nmol / L in (227 / 870) 26.09 %, between 25 - 50 nmol / L in (391/ 870) 44.94%, and </strong><strong>&gt;</strong><strong> 50 in (252 / 870) 28.96%.</strong></p> <p><strong>Out of 227 patients with VD deficiency (&lt; 25nmol / L), only 1(0.44%) had hypocalcaemia, 28 (12.33%) had abnormal high ALP, 109 (48%) had abnormal high PTH. Out of 252 patients with VD level &gt; 50 nmol / L, 63 (25%) were found to have high PTH, 21 (8.33%) with high ALP, hypocalcaemia were found in 1(0.39%) and low phosphate were found in 7(2.77 %) of the patients</strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Out of 391 patients with normal VD (&lt; 25.1 -50 nmol / L), only 3 (0.76%) had hypocalcaemia, 30 (7.67%) had abnormal high ALP, and 154 (39.38%) had abnormal high PTH.</strong></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: A normal Calcium level, ALP and/or PTH will not exclude 25OHD deficiency and measurement of 25OHD should be performed whenever VD deficiency is expected</strong></p> 2021-10-26T10:14:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University DESIGN OF A FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV ARRAY FED WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS 2021-11-23T08:26:37+00:00 RUAA R. SAFAALDEEN test` LOKMAN H. HASSAN test` <p><strong>The purpose of this paper is a designing an efficient solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System (PVWPS) by using a three phase induction motor. Two adaptive fuzzy logic controllers are proposed to control the dc-link voltage and the induction motor speed. A combination between of fuzzy logic and gain-scheduling controller is proposed to design the adaptive Fuzzy Gain-scheduling Proportional and Integral (FGPI) controllers. A linearized model is considered for the system using small signal model. The performances of the PVWPS using the proposed controllers are set side by side to those gotten from the classic Proportional plus Integral (PI) controllers. The simulation results demonstrated that the suggested controllers are effective in enhancing the dynamic performance of the system</strong></p> 2021-11-09T07:58:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University IMPACT OF TH17/TREGFOXP3 CELLS RATIO ON RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTI TNF- THERAPY-. 2021-11-23T08:35:35+00:00 ENAS RIYADH MOHSEN NAAEL H. ALI <p><strong>In order to determine the correlation between disease activity of RA with the Th17/TregFoxp3 cells ratio in patients undertherapy with Anti-TNF-alpha which is the aim of present study, Ninety-seven patients with RA and healthy control groups were included in this case control study, eighty-four patients divided into four groups; 25 patients receiving only MTX; 18 patients receiving monotherapy (anti- TNF); 26 patients receiving combined therapy (MTX + anti-TNF); 15 patients with RA not receiving any drug (positive control). Other thirteen healthy people considered as negative control were enrolled in this study. Patients with RA were attending Basrah General Hospital, Rheumatology Unite, Biological Therapy Center for receiving anti-TNF therapy. Flowcytometry was used for measuring TregFoxp3 and Th17 markers and DAS-28 score was used for measuring RA disease activity. Anti TNF inhibitors (Infliximab and Etanercept) were measured as well. Other inflammatory and hematological parameters were also measured (ESR, total WBC, Lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophil counts). Resulted, DAS-28 as disease activity score was significantly correlated with Th17/ TregFoxp3 ratio and with the TH17 cells count. Statistically, Th17/ TregFoxp3 ration was not correlated with BMI, morning stiffness, and duration of the disease. In a Conclusion, Th17/Treg Foxp3 ratio correlated significantly with DAS-28 as RA disease activity. The lower Tregs Foxp3 frequency, the higher the DAS score reflecting higher disease activity. In combined therapy group, disease activity was found lower than other patient groups indicating for the effect of this combination between MTX and anti-TNF. Herein, we demonstrated that the main advantage of this combined therapy in RA patients was the reversion of Th17 cell expan­sion</strong></p> 2021-11-09T08:02:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University THE EFFECT OF Pepper Nigrum, Olea Europaea MOUTHWASH WITH NON SURGICAL PERIODONTAL THERAPY ON CLINICAL OUTCOME AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS 2021-12-20T20:38:16+00:00 SUZAN MOHAMMED SALIH TAHA test` NAJLA KATHIM ISSA test` SAEED ALI MOHAMMED test` <p><strong>Introduction: gargles are liquid topical drugs&nbsp; that action&nbsp; by gargling and&nbsp; rinsing into mouth. Many&nbsp; mouthwashes are&nbsp; existences&nbsp;&nbsp; and by prescription with a broad&nbsp; level&nbsp; of active components&nbsp; which can be manipulated as a&nbsp; helper&nbsp; to aid in the multifactorial therapy of complicated&nbsp; oral situation , &nbsp;consisting&nbsp; of&nbsp;gingivitis, halitosis, and&nbsp; periodontal illness. Newly ( <em>Pepper Nigrum&nbsp; , </em></strong><strong><em>Olea Europaea</em></strong> <strong>)&nbsp; are herbal&nbsp; with&nbsp;&nbsp; antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal influences, using plant extracts as mouthwash , in addition to being safe and inexpensive. </strong></p> <p><strong>Aim :</strong><strong>To measure&nbsp; the effect of herbal mouthwash (<em>Pepper Nigrum , Olea Europaea</em>) and non-surgical periodontal therapy&nbsp; in comparison with periodontal therapy alone&nbsp; on oxidative stress , total antioxidant capacity , antioxidant&nbsp; enzyme activities in all spit of sick person with chronic periodontitis. To investigate association amidst oxidative stress parameter, antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant capacity and&nbsp; periodontal parameter</strong></p> <p><strong>Material&nbsp; and ways : A flow up study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of </strong><strong>72 patients (39male and 33femal) aged 25-55 years from patients&nbsp; attending college of dentistry ,department of periodontology from December 2020, to April&nbsp; 2020 .participants&nbsp; were assigned into three categories&nbsp; , every catigory consist of 24 patients : first group receiving non-surgical periodontal treatment NSPT and <em>Pepper Nigrum&nbsp; </em>mouthwash, second groups receiving <em>Olea Europaea&nbsp; </em>and NSPT&nbsp; while the third group control receiving NSPT only. Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and&nbsp; Plaque Index (PI) were recorded. Salivary oxidative stress eight hydroxy&nbsp; deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG),salivary&nbsp; Catalase(CAT) and salivary Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), were measured</strong></p> <p><strong>Result : The concentration of salivary antioxidants (CAT)&nbsp; significantly increase p-value &lt;0.006, the periodontal parameter (CAL , PI) and oxidative stress 8-OHdG significantly decrease p-value&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;0.0001&nbsp; and&nbsp; &lt;0.001 respectively after two weeks following the NSPT&nbsp; in group of&nbsp; <em>Pepper Nigrum</em>, while TAOC was not changed .Moreover, for <em>Olea Europaea&nbsp; </em>group the clinical parameters of CAL, PI showed a significant decrease&nbsp; and p-value was (P&lt;0.0001) .Also&nbsp; CAT&nbsp;&nbsp; and TAOC express&nbsp; a significant increase&nbsp; (P&lt;0.0001) .In addition to oxidative stress 8-OHdG marker showed a significant decrease (p &lt;0.0001)&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: According to our research,</strong> <strong><em>Pepper Nigrum, Olea Europaea </em></strong><strong>mouthwash with NSPT reduced&nbsp; OS and bettering&nbsp; periodontal status and elevated salivary antioxidant&nbsp; . So, it is advised that <em>Pepper Nigrum&nbsp; , Olea Europaea </em>&nbsp;mouthwash&nbsp;&nbsp; with NSPT could&nbsp; be further efficient in control of inflammation in sick people with CP</strong> <strong>positive and negative correlations were found&nbsp; between biochemical and clinical parameters in <em>Pepper Nigrum </em>group <em>&nbsp;</em>while more positive correlation was&nbsp; found in <em>Olea Europaea</em>&nbsp; group. It indicates that periodontitis can be one of the factors for decreased antioxidant level in our body. It indicates that periodontitis can be one of the factors for decreased antioxidant level</strong> in our body</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-12-09T08:02:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University AN ECG CLASSIFIER USING FIR WITH A QRS RESPONSE 2021-12-20T20:43:13+00:00 DINA RIYADH IBRAHIM <p><strong>Recording the electrocardiography (ECG) signals is one of the main ways to diagnose heart disease cases through detecting the total or partial alterations in the P wave, QRS complex, or T wave of the signal. This bioelectrical signal is used to detect and visualize any irregular changes in the heart's electrical activity. The two fundamental steps for ECG signal analysis are identifying the QRS complex and providing more details on the disease under medical investigation. The discrete-time response of a high-pass FIR filter is achieved by equating the time coefficients of the filter with a discretized version of the QRS complex part of a standard ECG signal. The high-pass FIR filter helps reduce the interference of the 50 Hz power supply. A matched filter is designed using the discrete-time response of the high pass FIR filter, and the resulting matched filter response simulates a complex part of the QRS of an average ECG signal. When an ECG of a patient is applied as an input to the designed matching filter, the best fit correlated output coefficients of the patient ECG are obtained. The filter output coefficients are applied to the artificial neural network (ANN) recognition system to verify and classify the ECG input to four categories which are(AF, CHF, QT, and PTB) . The overall system can operate with an accuracy of 98%.</strong></p> 2021-12-09T08:23:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF AGGREGATE TYPE ON HOT MIX ASPHALT PROPERTIES IN KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ 2021-12-20T20:54:14+00:00 SHEYAN ALYOUSIFY SUNDIS M. S. TAHER <p>Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture that contains, approximately 95% by weight of aggregates. As a consequence the types of aggregates and their characteristics are of most significance in enhancing the durability of asphalt mixture worldwide. Accordingly the impact of aggregate type and gradation has been the focus of many researchers all over the world. In this investigation the effect of aggregate type on HMA in Kurdistan region/ Iraq were spotlighted. More precisely, in addition to gravel which is dominantly used in Kurdistan, crushed stone and limestone were the other types of aggregates that were concerned in the present work. The volumetric properties using Marshall Method of asphalt containing each of these aggregates were inspected. Moreover, the characteristics of aggregates that examined in this study were specific gravity and toughness (Los Angeles abrasion test). Experimental observations revealed that the toughness of gravel and crushed stone was higher than that of limestone as the L.A. abrasion for the latter was considerably higher than that of crushed stone and gravel. Crushed stone with 4.2% binder content resulted in an acceptable flow value according to Iraqi SORB/2003 as well as gravel mix of 4% binder content, while limestone with higher optimum binder content of 6% recorded a non-acceptable value of 4.4 mm. The stability of limestone mix appeared to be higher by 36% and 50% than that for crushed stone and gravel mix, respectively.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-12T08:40:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University CERVICAL LENGTH ASSESSMENT DURING PREGNANCY USING ULTRASOUND MEASURES IN DUHOK CITY 2021-12-23T06:52:22+00:00 DILGASH HAMEED AHMAD SOHAIB HASAN ALI MAYSALOON SHAMAN SAEED <p>Preterm birth has been regarded as a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with an incidence ranging from 5-18 % worldwide. Early screening of pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery and managing it correctly are essential aids to reduce the predictable complications associated with prematurity</p> <p>Objective: The main aim of the study was to assess the true and acuurate cervical measuremants that predict the clear definition and cut values of the cervical incompetence in second trimester pregnant women by using transabdominal and transvaginal Ultrasound .</p> <p>More specofc aim of the study was looking for the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound in measuring the cervical length for prediction of preterm birth when compared with transvaginal ultrasound, assessment of the mean cervical lengthin the second trimester pregnancy , the correlation between both of these modalities in each case , finding the clear cut off value of transabdominal Ultrasound measurement to be further assessed by transvaginal Ultrasound .</p> <p>Materials: A cross sectional prospective study done on ninety-three pregnant women between 12-22 weeks of gestation who were referred between March to November of 2018in thisprospective study ,their cervical lengths were assessed by using transabdominal Ultrasound , using Transvaginal Ultrasound as the reference, both methods were correlated forvariance.</p> <p>Results: The mean transabdominal cervical length measurements was seen to range (34.3 ± 5.8 mm) while the mean transabdominal cervical length measurements was seen to range (35.9 ± 4.4 mm). The mean transabdominal cervical length was shorter than the mean transvaginal cervical length by an average of 1.6 mm. The 10th percentile of transabdominal and transvaginal cervical length was 27 mm and29.4 mm, respectively. The two groups that showed significant difference between the two scanning methods were the 25th-50th centile group (TACL) of 33-37 mm) with p = 0.019, and the 50th-75th centile group (TACL) of 37-40 mm) with p =0.001 , the clear cut value of 27 mm was the value considered to revert fron TAUS to TVUS for CL assessment</p> <p>Conclusion:TAUS was found to be an initial CL screening method in the second trimester pregnant women generally while from 12- 14 weeks GA specifically the TVUS is preferred for this measurement ,a cut-off value of 27 mm is used to revert to TVUS for CL assessment instead of TAUS.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-23T06:52:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University