Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. 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All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION FREQUENCY AND RETRIEVE CONSUMPTIVE USE ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF SORGHUM UNDER SEMIARID CONDITION <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this study </strong><strong>to evaluate the effect of drip irrigation frequency and retrieve consumptive use rate on growth parameters of Sorghum crop speed feed variety. </strong><strong>The study was carried out at the field of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Duhok University, </strong><strong>were studied for growing season (2019-2020) under conditions of Duhok semi-arid region,</strong><strong> using drip irrigation system.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The irrigation frequency (IF<sub>1</sub>, IF<sub>2</sub>, IF<sub>3</sub> and IF<sub>4</sub>) arranged in main plots under three levels of retrieve consumptive use which were (1.00 CU, 0.70 CU and 0.40 CU) in the sub plots and using 2880 plants &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;density ha<sup>-1</sup>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The data were recorded on leaf area index, net assimilation rate, growth rate, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant height</strong> <strong>and crop response factor (KY) were determined.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that the </strong><strong>actual evapotranspiration (ET<sub>a</sub>) was linearly related with water applied and retrieve consumptive use Under the three levels of retrieve consumptive use (1.00 CU, 0.70 CU, 0.40 CU) the cumulative actual evapotranspiration (ET<sub>a</sub>) were 565.40, 395.78 and 226.16 mm, irrigation water 589.05 , 419.55 and 250.13</strong> <strong>mm and water use were 595.68, 425.80 and 256.12 mm. these parameters were measured from the beginning of emergency stage until cutting green forage yield of Sorghum crop.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The values of Sorghum growth parameters of leaf area index, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate,</strong> <strong>leaf area, specific leaf area, stem radius and total leaves number increased with increasing irrigation frequency, IF and </strong><strong>retrieve consumptive use. </strong><strong>The highest values of the parameters were obtained for IF1 (once in 1 day)&nbsp; under level (1.00) retrieve consumptive use.&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Crop response factor (KY) decreased with increasing irrigation frequency (IF) while it increased with increasing retrieve consumptive use (CU).</strong></p> DIMAN NAFEA MUHAMMED AKRAM ABBAS KHALAF Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 1 18 RECREATIONAL USE VALUE OF SHERANA VALLEY IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p><strong>Ecotourism and outdoor recreation are becoming one of the most attractive activities in the economic developments mainly due to their relaxation aspects for reducing the daily urban stress. While, debates continue about selecting the best strategies for recreational activities management, due to natural resources and finance limitations. Thus, estimation of economic value and benefits of recreation sites require allocating optimum resources of scarce. The economic evaluation of the recreation impact has been observed by few studies in Kurdistan region of Iraq. The current study aimed to determine the effect of demographic and socio-economic features of tourists on recreation demand, tourist use value in term of (Travel Cost trip, The Demand Function model and Calculation of the Consumer Surplus). The results showed that there was a slight difference between genders, graduates degrees and job career to visit Sherana valley natural tourist destination. Interestingly, most of the ecotourist visited the Sherana Valley for the opportunity to experience the beauty and magic of its great outdoors (55.5% and 22.5% respondents did their first-, and second-time visits, respectively). Moreover, the difference between families income has a great effect on the visits. The findings showed that the average value of total travel cost was 24472.5 per tourist per visit and the most interesting finding was that the annual number of tourists visit affected by the travel cost, household income, age, and education level were not compatible with theoretical expectation in the travel cost implementation. Hence the consumer Surplus was estimated in this study to be 862069 ID (~ 690 US$). Due to the lack of database in this domain further researches need for other sites that qualify as a natural destination of recreation</strong></p> SILAV SADIQ HASAN GHARIBA YOUSIF HAJI ARAZ BAHJAT ABDULLAH HAJI YAZDEEN HAJI HONAR SAFAR MAHDI SAMI YOUSSEF Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 19 31 EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF IBA ON ROOTING AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF HARDWOOD STEM CUTTING OF THREE SPECIES OF MULBERRY (MORUS SPP.) <p><strong>This study was conducted during the growing season 2020 in the nursery of the Horticulture Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Stem cuttings of three species</strong><strong> of mulberry </strong><strong>are taken from gardens of University of Duhok located at Malta</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>This study</strong> <strong>include three factors. First factor was the effect of three different planting dates </strong><strong>(22<sup>nd</sup> January, 5<sup>th</sup> February and 19<sup>th</sup> February)</strong><strong>. The second factor was</strong><strong> the effect of three species of mulberry </strong><strong>(black mulberry (<em>Morus nigra), </em>white mulberry<em> (Morus alba) </em>and red mulberry<em> (Morus rubra</em></strong><strong>)). </strong><strong>And the third factor was the effect of three concentrations of IBA (0, 1500 and 3000 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>). </strong><strong>The results as the following;</strong><strong> the first planting date on 22<sup>nd</sup> January gave the higher value of rooting percentage (61.19%). The cuttings of the black mulberry gave the higher rooting percentage (60.59%), and as IBA treatment had significant value of rooting percentage (45.70%) in (3000 mg. IBA L<sup>-1</sup>) treatment. There were significant effect caused in species of mulberry and </strong><strong>in concentration of </strong><strong>IBA</strong><strong> on vegetative growth (length of stem, diameter of stem and number of leaves) were in the black mulberry and in </strong><strong>(3000 mg. IBA L<sup>-1</sup>) treatment</strong><strong>. While no significant effect of planting dates of three types of mulberry on the vegetative growth was recorded. The best result for rooting percentage (95.33%) was showed in triple interaction among (22<sup>nd</sup> January + </strong><strong>(3000 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>) IBA + type of black mulberry).</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> NAJEEBA W. MOHAMMED SULAIMAN M. KAKO Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 32 40 PARAMETERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF INFILTRATION MODELS FOR TWO SOILS PLAINS OF DUHOK REGION UNDER DIFFERENT LANDUSES <p><strong>The aims of this study were to parameterization and evaluation of two infiltration models for two plains soils under semi-arid conditions with different landuses types, such as cultivated, fallow, and orchard landuses. The infiltration models evaluated were</strong> <strong>Kostiakov, and Philip.</strong></p> <p><strong>The research was conducted at the three sites represent two major plains of Duhok governorate of Iraqi-Kurdistan Region.&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Two models exhibiting the best performance are Kostiakov, and Philip-two term, Regarding the Kostiakov model, the coefficient parameter value of (C) is directly proportional to the initial infiltration rate whereas the exponential time parameter value of (n) is inversely proportional to the initial infiltration rate. it can be concluded that the value of C is correlated with the capillary force at the beginning of infiltration, concerning to the Philip model the value of sorptivity (S) was close to the value of the initial infiltration rate. This is due to the function of S parameter which has the soil suction potential and that transmissivity value considered to 0.33 of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil.</strong></p> <p><strong>Infiltration models evaluation revealed that the Philip-two term model is more suitable for cultivated land CL and orchard land OL and Kostiakov model fallow landuses FL for the two investigated sites of Semel, and Zakho.</strong></p> NICHIRVAN AHMAD MUHAMMAD AMIN AKRAM ABBAS KHALAF Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 41 58 TOLFENPYRAD ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT ON SOME INSECTICIDES AGAINST COLORADO POTATO BEETLE Leptinotarsa decemlineata (SAY) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) <p><strong>The effect of the Antifeedant tolfenpyrad in the proportion of activation, synergy, and potentiation of pesticides oxaymatherin, acetamiprid, and lufenuron against Colorado beetle larvae and adults were studied. The results showed Exultance effect on Toxicity. The results also showed Exultance mixing Acetamiprid with antifeedant Tolfenopyrad pesticide toxicity to the activation of the pesticide in the larvae the third instar at a rate of 1.72, where was the rate of potentian reach 1.7.&nbsp; &nbsp;The antifeedant Tolfenopyrad mixture with insecticides Lufenuron and Oxymathrin each alone had antagonism effect where the activation rate reached 0.17 and 0.54 respectively. While the activation effect of mixing antifeedant Tolfenpyrad with the insecticides oxaymatherin, acetamiprid, and lufenuron against adult of Colorado beetle had antagonism effect reached 0.124, 0.524, and 0.614, respectively. </strong></p> MASOOD HUSSEIN MOSA BATOOL A. KARSO Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 59 67 PREVALENCE OF CANINE INTESTINAL PARASITES IN DUHOK PROVINCE, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ <p><strong>Intestinal parasites in canine can cause malnutrition, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, and anemia. Several species of internal parasites that exist in dogs’ intestine may lead to zoonotic diseases. In this study, canine fecal samples (n꞊ 48) were collected from public spaces and privet properties in Duhok province to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, and to identify the predominant parasitic species and to evaluate the potential risk factors among the animals. All samples were examined for intestinal helminthes and protozoa by direct microscopy, flotation and sedimentation methods. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was (54.16%), 52% in males and 56.52% in females. The study revealed the presence of two species of parasites detected included <em>Toxocara canis </em>(68%) and <em>Echinococcus granulosis </em>(32%). Furthermore canine breed, age, sex and type of food showed an association with varying degrees with prevalence of canine intestinal parasites.</strong></p> MOHAMMED SHUKRI SHUKUR Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 68 72 RESPONSE YIELD AND SOME GROWTH PARAMETERS OF BREAD WHEAT TO NANO AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS <p><strong>The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Nano and nitrogen fertilizers on grain yield and some growth parameters of bread wheat. The field experiment was carried out at the farm of field crop department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok. The experimental units included of Nano fertilizer and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 20, 30 and 40 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Each experimental units consisted of four rows for each varieties. The data analyzed according to factorial experiment in randomize block design with three replications. Results indicated that the significant response is obvious due to varieties, Holler variety was superior in leaf area (60.98cm<sup>2</sup>), number of grain spike<sup>-1</sup> (49.46) and spike length (11.05cm), while the nitrogen application exhibited a significant effect at nitrogen levels on all studied characters and the highest values for leaf area (64.65cm<sup>2</sup>), total grain yield (5.0635 ton/ha) and 1000 grain yield (32.75gm) was recorded at rate 40 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. For the interaction between Nano, nitrogen fertilizers and wheat varieties, the results indicated that the maximum values were recorded by Holler variety and 40 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of nitrogen fertilizer, indicating that positive influence of nitrogen and Nano-fertilizer on yield, some growth parameters and grain yield were related to better performance of variety. For variation in agronomic efficiency (AE), the maximum value was recorded by Holler variety and also the results exhibited the highest value for grain yield response index (GYRI). The Holler cultivar was more than Adana-99 and the values ranged 15% to 36% compare with 7% to 16% for Adana-99. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> MOHAMMED ALI HUSSAIN OMER ANWAR OMER HOGIR SALIM MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 24 1 73 81