Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> EFFECT OF BIO-FERTILIZER AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CHICK PEA UNDER RAIN FED CONDITION <p><strong>A field experiment was carried out during the spring 2020 to evaluate the effect of phosphorus levels and bio-fertilizer on growth and yield of local variety of chick pea. It was conducted at the farm the College of the Agricultural Engineering Sciences, the experimental units laid out in Factorial arrangement using Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications, using three levels of phosphorus (0, 20 and 30 Kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>) and three levels of bio-fertilizer (0, 4 and 6 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The results indicated that the effect of phosphorus, bio-fertilizer and interaction between them exhibited significant effect on all studied characters. The effect of interaction showed highest values for the pods height (36.06cm), percent of phosphorus in seed was (0.446), plant height (59.428cm), number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup> (64.16), seeds weight (5.583 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), number of primary and secondary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>(4 and 15.50) respectively, number of nodules were (31.978) and &nbsp;the weight of nodules were (0.369g) obtained at the interaction effect of&nbsp; fertilizer levels 30 Kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> and 6 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> bio-fertilizer in comparing with other interaction combinations and control. Also the results indicated that the percentage of the element efficiency under different phosphorus and bio-fertilizer levels, the efficiency of &nbsp;the element increased with initial increasing in phosphorus rate and recorded 70.72% comparing with control</strong></p> HOGIR SALIM MOHAMMED ZAKHOYI MOHAMMED ALI HUSSAIN OMER ANWAR OMER Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 1 10 INFLUENCE OF GLUCOSE AND PEPTONE ON THE MYCELIAL GROWTH OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus ostreatus) <p><strong>This present study was carried out to investigate</strong> <strong>the effect of glucose concentrations (5, 10, and 15) g.l<sup>-1</sup> as carbohydrate source and peptone (0, 2, 4, and 6) g.l<sup>-1</sup> as nitrogen source on mycelial growth, colony diameter, growth period, and mycelial morphology of <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em>. The results indicated that the best mycelial extension after three and seven days from isolation was recorded at 5 g.l<sup>-1</sup> glucose and 6 g.l<sup>-1</sup> peptone whereas the lower growth of colony diameter recorded at 15 g.l<sup>-1</sup> glucose and in the control plates of peptone. Nevertheless, complete colonization of mycelial growth period was obtained after six days of incubation between lower concentration of glucose with all concentrations of peptone and between 10 g.l<sup>-1</sup> glucose with 6 g.l<sup>-1</sup> peptone, while concentration 15 g.l<sup>-1</sup> glucose plus control or 2 g.l<sup>-1</sup> peptone were fully colonized after ten days from colony growth. However, the best interactions between glucose at concentrations (5 and 10) g.l<sup>-1</sup> with 6 g.l<sup>-1</sup> peptone were showed white mycelium color, abundant colony growth, high density mycelium and cottony texture as mycelial morphology characters for oyster mushroom.</strong></p> NASHWAN Y. EDO Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 11 18 EFFECT OF CULTIVARS, DATE, IBA AND THEIR INTERACTION ON ROOTING OF SEMI-HARDWOOD OLIVE CUTTING CVS. 'SHAMI ' AND ' QAISI’. <p><strong>This research was conducted during the growing season. (2016) in Bakrajo Nursery Station/ Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Uniform and healthy olive (<em>Olea europaea</em> L.) Shami and Qaisi cuttings were used four concentrations (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm), three dates (15/3, 1/4, and 15/4) were used to investigate root growth of semi-hardwood olive cuttings cvs 'Shami' and 'Qaisi'. The following is a summary of the findings: The IBA hormone treatment had a considerable impact on most root growth. On the majority of the root growth, Shami cv. significantly dominated than the&nbsp; Qaisi cvs.&nbsp; Most root growth characteristics were strongly impacted by interactions between date, IBA, and cv. Shami.</strong></p> GULALA M. A. SAEED AZAD A. MAYI Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 19 27 ASSESSMENT OF CORRELATION OF PREGNANCY PARAMETERS AND FETAL AGE FOR EWES <p><strong>This study aimed to determine values of ewe’s fetal developmental parameters and their correlations during pregnancy. The study carried out on eighteen variable parameters of 64 pregnant ewes collected from Duhok slaughterhouse. The average correlation of genital tract weight, crown to rump, head, thoracic, pelvic, orbital diameters, forelimbs, humerus, hind limb, Tibia, Occipito-nasal and greater length of skull were high (&gt;0.90). The umbilical cord circumferences, interorbital, fetal weight, and hoof length were moderately correlated (&gt;0.80) with other parameters. Potential hydrogen (pH) of embryonic fluid had a negative correlation with other parameters. Fetal age, crown-rump length, thoracic, and fetal head diameters increased every 10 days. Genital tract weight, interorbital, and occipitonasal length increased every 20 to 30 days. However, length of skull was increased only during late pregnancy. The forelimb and hindlimb increased slightly with pregnancy development. Caruncle and umbilical cord diameters were increased during the half term of pregnancy then reduce or remain in the same diameters at the end. Embryonic fluid pH turns to acidity with fetal development. In conclusion, specific parameters are practical to confirm gestational age during specific gestational period when the date of breeding is unknown.</strong></p> BAYAR K. ZEEBAREE Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 28 38 COMPARISON BETWEEN CHICKEN AND RED MEAT SHAWARMA FOOD FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION <p><strong>The present study was conducted on 100 samples of two types of Shawarma fast-food (chickens meat Shawarma and red meat Shawarma) in restaurants and Cafeterias of Soran city, Kurdistan region, Iraq; for four months during 2021. The aim of this investigation was to compare both types of Shawarma for bacterial contamination. The collected samples were transferred to the laboratory using cold box and analyzed within two hours. The samples were prepared for bacteriological analysis via observed and total viable count (TVC) of bacteria; Total coliform count, Staphylococcus bacteria count, Detecting of Salmonella and Examining culture (for identification and isolating Grams Stain bacteria). The main results were as follow; TVC bacteria percentages in chicken and red meat Shawarma were (82 vs. 94) %, respectively; with values of (9</strong> <strong>10<sup>4</sup> vs. 14</strong> <strong>10<sup>4</sup>) cfu/g, respectively. The counterparts’ percentages of Coliform contamination were (10 vs. 14) %, respectively; with values of (27</strong> <strong>10<sup>2</sup> vs. 2</strong> <strong>10<sup>3</sup>) cfu/g, respectively. <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis,</em> <em>Salmonella</em>, <em>Shigella spp</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> bacteria recorded (18, 12, 20, 24 and 2) %, respectively for both types of Shawarma. The highest positive and significant (P&lt;0.01) correlation coefficient was found between <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> count (0.762) in chicken’s Shawarma. This study discovered some dangerous types of Coliforms for the first time in Shawarma samples (<em>Raoulttella ornithinolytica, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Aeromonas salmonicida</em>). </strong></p> WAZIRA Q. SAEED ISSA M. MOHAMMAD Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 39 48 POTASSIUM FORMS FOR MAIN SOIL ORDERS IN THE NORTH OF IRAQ <p><strong>Fifteen soil samples were collected from five locations in the North of Iraq from three surface genetic horizons for the five locations [Semeel (Vertisols), Imerik (Aridisols), Gerderash (Inceptisols), Perdi (Aridisols) and Wermawa (Mollisols)] to study the forms of potassium and its distribution with the depth. All studied soils are calcareous and non-saline soils contain low organic matter. </strong></p> <p><strong>The studied forms of K in the surface horizons of the studied soils (soluble, exchangeable, available, non-exchangeable, mineral and total potassium) were ranged between (12 – 40, 82 – 229, 97 – 246, 656 – 3800, 462 – 2933 and 1200 – 5400) mg kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively, while in the intermediate (A and A1) soil horizons were (5 –26,&nbsp; 67 – 214 ,&nbsp; 72 –&nbsp; 216 ,&nbsp; 676 – 3040 , 709 – 2048&nbsp; and&nbsp; 1700 – 5200) mg kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively and in the third horizon of studied soils were (4 – 14 ,&nbsp; 68 – 191, 70 – 186 ,&nbsp; 345 – 3232 ,&nbsp; 419 – 4516&nbsp; and 1700 – 5800) mg kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively, this illustrates the amount of soluble, exchangeable, available (soluble + exchangeable), non-exchangeable decreases with the depth. </strong><strong>The constituted percent of the soluble, exchangeable; available; nonexchangeable and mineral potassium from total-K in all pedons equal to 0.469; 4.185 ; (4.538); 52.141 and 43.318 respectively.</strong></p> <p><strong>Correlation study illustrates positively and significantly correlated between total potassium with exchangeable, available, non-exchangeable, mineral, while positively and significant relation demonstrate between exchangeable, available, non-exchangeable with silt content in the soils, but positively relation found between soluble potassium with pH and negatively to EC. The high amount of soluble K found in Perdi pedon (Aridisols) but higher amount of the exchangeable, non- exchangeable, available and total-K demonstrate in Imerik pedon (Aridisols) while large amount of mineral-K shown in Gerderash pedon (Inceptisols)</strong></p> HAJEEN KHALIL ISMAIL LAZKEEN AHMED MERWEEN MEHMEDANY HOGIR SALIM MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 49 59 EFFECT OF SPRAYING OF PROSOPIS FARCTA EXTRACT, FOLICIST AND ABO NAJEMH20 ON GROWTH OF POMEGRANATE TRANSPLANT VAR. WONDERFUL CALIFORNIA <p><strong>This investigation was carried out during growing season (2019-2020) in the lathhouse of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. To investigate the effect of spraying with Prosopis farcta (0, 100 and 200 ppm), Folicist (0, 50, and 100 ppm) and Abo-najemh20 (50, 75 and 150 ppm) on growth of Pomegranate transplant. The results show that the all studied parameters were increased by increasing the concentration of Prosopis farcta especially at (200 ppm) and Folicist at (100ppm) and Abo-najemh20 at (150ppm). The best interaction between Prosopis farcta and Folicist was (200ppm and 100 ppm) respectively. Also, the interaction of Prosopis farcta at 200ppm with Abo-najemh20 at 150ppm lead to enhancing most studied characteristics. And the interaction between Folicist at 100ppm + 150ppm had a significant difference in improving the studied parameters. However, in triple combinations it found that the Prosopis farcta at 200ppm + Folicist at 100ppm + Abo najemh20 at 150ppm was superior interaction compared with all other combination treatment including control treatment</strong></p> HASAN SALEEM NABI Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 60 67 PREDICTION OF POTENTIAL MUTATION OF CHICKEN CORONAVIRUS INTO FUTURE HUMAN CORONAVIRUS BASED ON SPIKE S1 GLYCOPROTEIN GENE <p><strong>The high mutation rates of the chicken coronavirus (IBV) cause economic threats to the poultry industry. However, the most dangerous situation is the likelihood of changing its sequences into human coronavirus (COVID-19-like virus). Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic mutation of IBV to COVID-19. Thus, the sequences of Spike (S1) Glycoprotein genes of both IBV and COVID-19 were aligned, analyzed and calculated to predict the possible changes that could happen in the sequences of S1. The results indicated that in the case of an independent function of probability of each cluster of S1 sequences, the potential mutation rate in the sequences of IBV to be as COVID-19 was equal to 1.87E-96. However, because the tendency for some sequence clusters of S1 gene was low or equal to zero, it is unattainable to mutate the chicken IBV into COVID-19 sequence. Furthermore, in case of the dependent function, the probability of assumed annual mutation to make IBV infectious for human may reach up to around 50% after about 260 years. As a conclusion, the mutating of chicken coronavirus into COVID-19-like virus is not impossible, but it might take a substantial period of time</strong></p> SHEKHMOUS H. HUSSEN , SHERZAD M. HUSSEIN SARBAST I. MUSTAFA RENAS H. ISA MWAFAQ S. BARWARY Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Duhok University 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 24 2 68 80