Journal of Duhok University https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> HAAR WAVELET FOR NUMERIC SOLUTION OF RLC CIRCUIT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1897 <p><strong>The wavelet transformation is a mathematical method developed over the past decades to be adapted for applications in the fields of science and engineering. The wavelet transform can be applied in the field of numerical analysis to solve the differential equation. This paper is concerned with applying Haar wavelet methods to solve an ordinary differential equation for an RLC series circuit with a known initial state. The matrix construction calculations are proposed in a simple way. Three numerical mathematical examples are shown that include second-order differential equations with variable and constant coefficients. The results showed that the proposed method is quite reasonable while comparing the solution of second order systems by Haar wavelet method with the exact solution in the context of serial RLC circuit. Moreover, the use of Haar waves is found to be simple, accurate, with flexible and appropriate arithmetic computational costs.</strong></p> BATOOL ABDULSATAR ABDULGHANI JEEMAN AHMED KHORSHEED FIRAS MAHMOOD MUSTAFA AHMED KHORSHEED AL-SULAIFANIE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 1 12 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.1 A REVIEW OF STRENGTH AND BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK SLABS OVERLAID WITH ULTRA HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (UHPC) https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1898 <p><strong>The use of Ultra High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) for repairing damaged structures has been discovered in recent decades. Unique properties of UHPC give superior structural performance for strengthening the existing bridge or slab. The lack of data has been available in code provisions about this strengthening technology, that is why reviewing the experimental studies can guide application. This literature study presented the experimental database with its evaluation for the number of researchers to examine the effectiveness of strengthening bridges or slabs with UHPC. Also, this study discussed the basic parameters which affect the strengthening process directly, including interface preparation, size effect, characteristics of substrate NSC and characteristics of UHPC overlay. Different failure modes of composite structures were identified under flexure. In addition, based on the existing works of literature an estimate equation has been developed to predict the cracking and failure load of strengthening composite structures. The experimental studies evidenced that the UHPC can prolong the life of existing old structures and reduce the cost of maintenance. Finally, some recommendations are suggested for future work to obtain a more accurate result</strong></p> SIVER IBRAHIM ISMAEL GHAFUR H. AHMED Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 13 32 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.2 LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS ON CURSIVE CHARACTERS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1899 <p><strong>Document Analysis has major importance in Information Retrieval Systems. Dredged with vaults of paper and material documents, to protect very important information and the summaries, without losing their meaning and importance, each document need to be properly curated and processed. Ancient written documents possess many types of cursive language character sets, which are very tedious to discriminate the characters and subsequently the right meaning. To overcome the difficulties of reading the cursive language characters and prevent misunderstanding the meaning and the importance of documents, an improvised CNN [6] model to work on OCR&nbsp; and Tesseract API has been proposed in this work. The documents are scanned, curated and preprocessed in the forms of images. CNN are the best algorithms, hitherto in the existing AI and Deep Learning arena. CNN with OCR API could contribute to the development of efficient strategies of character recognition even with complex cursive styles. A method which is adaptable to the classification and segmentation of the text images with cursive styles is proposed I this article. Tesseract is the popular and effective OCR library with rich API that can enrich the CNN-OCR model</strong></p> CHIAI MOHAMMED HAJI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 33 40 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.3 HYBRIDIZATION GRADIENT BASED METHODS WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1900 <p><strong>In this paper, we propose two hybrid gradient based methods and genetic algorithm for solving systems of linear equations with fast convergence. The first proposed hybrid method is obtained by using the steepest descent method and the second one by the Cauchy-Barzilai-Borwein method. These algorithms are based on minimizing the residual of solution which has genetic characteristics. They are compared with the normal genetic algorithm and standard gradient based methods in order to show the accuracy and the convergence speed of them. Since the conjugate gradient method is recommended for solving large sparse and symmetric positive definite matrices, we also compare the numerical results of our proposed algorithms with this method. The numerical results demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Moreover, we observe that our hybridization of the CBB method and genetic algorithm gives more accurate results with faster convergence than other mentioned methods in all given cases</strong></p> AYAD RAMADHAN ALI BAYDA GHANIM FATHI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 41 49 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.4 INTESTINAL PARASITES AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DUHOK CITY-KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1901 <p><strong>Background: The present study was carried out during the period from October 2021 until March 2022, to detect the presence of parasites in stool samples of primary school children. </strong></p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1172 diarrheic stool specimens were randomly collected from primary school children of both sexes and different ages (6-12 years) visited Azadi Teaching Hospital, Heevi Pediatric Hospital, and Kurdistan private (Maternity and Pediatric) Hospital in Duhok city.</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: In the current study, 40.96% (480/1172) of the examined specimens were positive for parasitic stages, they included 56.67% (272) males and 43.33% (208) females. High prevalence (40%) of intestinal parasites was reported among the age group 6-7 years. The recorded intestinal parasitic species included:&nbsp; <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> which was the most dominant intestinal protozoa with infection rate of 21.67% (254/1172), followed by <em>Enterobius vermicularis </em>13.48% (158/1172), then <em>Giardia lamblia</em> of about 5.46% (64/1172) , while </strong><a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/blastocystis-hominis-infection/symptoms-causes/syc-20351205"><strong><em>Blastocystis hominis</em></strong></a><strong>&nbsp; was reported only in four children at a rate of 0.34% (1172). As regards to some sociodemographic factors, significant correlations (<em>P </em>&lt;0.05) were observed between the rates of infection with intestinal parasites and residency, dirty fingers and family size. While regarding other factors such as, literacy, hand washing and having pets the correlations were non-significant (<em>P </em>&gt;0.05)</strong></p> JANAN MOHAMMED SALIH AYMAN OTHMAN HASSAN ADEL TALIB MOHAMMED AL-SAEED Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 50 56 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.5 HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN DUHOK: IN RELATION TO DISEASE. ACTIVITY SCORE https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1902 <p><strong>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes high rate of the mortality. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is markedly elevated in RA partly due to accelerated atherosclerosis (AS) from chronic inflammation. Homocysteine’ elevation (Hcys) strongly related to the AS and CVD’s&nbsp; progression in RA. Current study aims to evaluates Hcys level status and its relation with disease &nbsp;activity (DA) and inflammation marker (CRP) in Duhok RA patients. </strong></p> <p><strong>Sixty-four RA patients (case) were involved in this study with equal number of healthy individuals (control), means± SD of their age were 47.78 ± 14.08 and 46.98 ± 15 respectively. ratio of females to males was (8.1 and 7.0) in case and control respectively. Blood was analyzed and RA related laboratory and biochemical markers were investigated.</strong></p> <p><strong>The results revealed that Means±SD of Hcys&nbsp; was higher in case comparing to control (17.30±8.52 and 7.2±3.4) respectively. RA patient with high DA score &nbsp;recorded higher percentage intra group of increased Hcys level (52%).</strong></p> <p><strong>This study concludes that &nbsp;there is a strong association between Hcys level and RA activity, severity and inflammation process in RA Duhok patients. Hcys could play role as a predictor marker helping physicians for good monitoring and managing RA disease</strong></p> SHERZAD SAEED YOUNIS NAJLAA KADHM ISSA DHIA MUSTAFA SULAIMAN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 25 2 57 64 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.6 OPTIMIZATION OF LOAD BALANCING ALGORITHMS TO DEAL WITH DDOS ATTACKS USING WHALE ‎OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1904 <p><strong>Load balancing algorithms are used to deal with DDoS attacks to identify the optimal server and are responsible for the optimal allocation of requests to the servers. The managing method of the distribution of the requests between servers directly impacts network performance. Denial of service (DDoS) attacks are malicious attempts to interrupt regular operation or network traffic in a targeted manner, making disturbances in internet traffic by disrupting the infrastructure of different servers and thus causing problems such as slow site performance. This paper addresses the optimization of load balancing algorithms to deal with DDoS attacks using Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) with other closest algorithms (Round-Robin (RR), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA)). The results obtained from implementing these algorithms showed that the WOA performed better than other algorithms in term of speed up the response time to client requests. The whale optimization algorithm can prevent unexpected traffic and block the regular operation of Internet websites by providing a proper plan for distributing requests between servers and reducing the average response speed. So, the authors can prevent DDoS attacks by applying the whale optimization algorithm. It necessary be noted that the use of HAProxy to prevent DDoS is not enough, and depending on the type of attack, several layers of software and hardware security necessary be used</strong></p> NASIBA MAHDI ABDULKAREEM SUBHI R. M. ZEEBAREE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 65 85 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.7 QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG CAREGIVERS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS IN DUHOK CITY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1905 <p><strong>BACKGROUND: Caregivers of hemodialysis (HD) patients play a critical role in their care which can influence their quality of life. As a result, the present study aimed to examine the quality of life among hemodialysis caregivers and their relationship with some characteristics of caregivers and patients.</strong></p> <p><strong>SUBJECT AND METHODS: </strong><strong>This descriptive cross-sectional survey was directed to assess the quality of life among family caregivers of hemodialysis patients. </strong><strong>consecutive sampling was done and included (139) caregivers who had inclusion criteria. The period of data collection was</strong><strong> from the 2<sup>nd of </sup>November 2021 to the 10<sup>th </sup>of February 2022.</strong> <strong>The Short Form 36 questionnaire was used to collect data. </strong><strong>a p-value of &lt; 0.05 was statistically significant.</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong><strong>Of 139 caregivers, </strong><strong>the mean quality of life, physical and mental component scores were </strong><strong>59.49 ± 22.13, 63.2 ± 25.5, and 52.7 ±27.8 respectively. The scores of the physical functioning domain had the highest score (75.4 ± 24.74), while the Energy/Fatigue domain obtained the lowest score (46.19±25.86). There was a significant negative correlation between age and the quality of life </strong><strong>(r=-0.3858, P&lt;0.0001). Additionally, the quality of life was higher among younger, male, single, educated, and employed caregivers</strong> <strong>at a p-value (&lt;0.0001, =0.0003, &lt;0.0001, =0.0022, and =0.0091) respectively. </strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: Caregivers of hemodialysis patients had a satisfactory total quality of life score. Energy/Fatigue and mental health, on the other hand, were the most affected domains. These findings emphasize the necessity of addressing the mental health of caregivers, as well as providing them with financial and psychological support</strong></p> RONAK MUHAMMAD NAAMAN SANA THANOON AHMED Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 86 96 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.8 PRETERM DELIVERY: ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES IN DUHOK HOSPITAL FOR OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1906 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> <strong>To identify the risk factors and evaluate the early neonatal outcomes of premature infants in Duhok Hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology, </strong><strong>a tertiary center in Kurdistan Region - Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong><strong> This cross sectional study was carried out from September 1/2021 to December 31/2021. Four hundred participants were recruited, 200 were preterm and 200 were term. The participants were examined and followed till delivery. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for preterm delivery.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><strong> The risks factors for preterm delivery were maternal age ≥ 35 years (AOR 3.32; 95 % CI 1.12-9.86), nulliparity (AOR 2.14; 95 % CI 1.25-3.67), history of preterm birth (AOR 6.51; 95 % CI 1.99-21.28,), no ANC (AOR 3.01; 95 % CI 1.32-6.87), &lt; 4 ANC visits (AOR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.12-3.30), PROM (AOR 4.71; 95 % CI 2.71-8.16), antepartum hemorrhage (AOR 9.25; 95 % CI 1.81-47.39), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (AOR 2.30; 95 % CI 1.12-4.71) and anemia (AOR 3.51; 95 % CI 1.86-6.63). Preterm delivery is linked to poor early neonatal outcomes.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: Early identification of women at risk for preterm delivery by health care providers is essential to prevent preterm delivery</strong></p> AWAN HAJI SHEKHO MELAD ALIAS YALDA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 97 104 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.9 FACTORS AFFECTING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS BREASTFEEDING IN WOMEN WHO HAVE RECENTLY DELIVERED IN DUHOK CITY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1907 <p><strong>Background: Breastfeeding has been found to have a positive influence on a child's health even after 12 months of postpartum. The World Health Organization and United Nation Children Fund recommend a continued breastfeeding for up 2 years or beyond. Breastfeeding is widely known for its benefits to both mother and infant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect breastfeeding knowledge and practice of women who recently delivered in Duhok city.</strong></p> <p><strong>Method: A cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire among women who attended Duhok Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 14 November 2021 and 14 February 2022. All the participants were women aged 18-40 years.</strong></p> <p><strong>Result: All the participants were married women and multiparas ≥2 babies, aged 18-40 years with mean age of 29.22±5.6, more than one third (38.5%) was below 30 years old, and (33.5%) were having primary school educational levels. The women knowledge about breastfeeding in all of 400 recruited women were good in (91%) of them with a positive practice in (58.8%).&nbsp; The most common factors for discontinuing breastfeeding completely before 2 years in the previous deliveries were "insufficient breast milk production" in (36%), "felt it was the time to stop" in (34.3%), and "became pregnant or wanted to become pregnant again" was in (24.8%) of the study sample. The relation between the mode of delivery and women’s practices toward breastfeeding was a highly significance (<em>P</em>= 0.001).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: The most common barriers or factors responsible for stopping breastfeeding were the “felt it was time to stop" as lactating factors and "insufficient breast milk production" as psychological factor. Breastfeeding knowledge and practice were found to be modifiable factors that affect breastfeeding. The vast majority of the study sample had good knowledge about breastfeeding, with positive practices toward breastfeeding in half of the study sample</strong></p> HIYAM ALI ABDULLAH IMAN YOUSIF ABDULMALEK Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 105 113 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.10 ERROR RESILIENCE OF H.264/AVC CODING STRUCTURES FOR DELIVERY OVER WIRELESS NETWORKS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1908 <p><strong>Video content represents a large portion of global network traffic, and it is expected that this trend will continue as 4K video streaming becomes more popular and more applications such as entertainment and surveillance become available. Wireless networks are becoming the most important technologies for delivering cost-effective content, including video. The unpredictability of wireless channels, as well as the sensitivity of video content to packet losses, errors, and delays makes video delivery over wireless network difficult. Furthermore, when compared to wire links, congestion and complex traffic patterns make wireless channels much worse. Packet losses and network errors can be mitigated with the help of modern codecs. This study looks at the modern video codec H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC) and how to use the built-in error resilience tools to improve end-to-end video quality over simulated wireless networks. Network Simulator 3 (NS-3) was used and a framework for video quality assessment based on EvalVid 2.7 tools was employed. &nbsp;We tested the performance of several coding structures in the presence of different intra coding techniques. Results for less active video sequences showed that the IBP coding structure with intra period of 18 achieved best performance at lower loss rates. The addition of an intra MB line or extra random intra MBs did not seem to offer extra protection against errors for these sequences. For more active video sequences, IBBBP coding structure without or with an intra MB line performed better than all other configurations at all loss rates</strong></p> DILSHER I. MUSTAFA ISMAIL A. ALI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 114 128 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.11 HIGH-SENSITIVITY TROPONIN-T LEVEL AFTER PEDIATRIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE SURGERY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1909 <p><strong>Cardiac tissue ischemia can be assessed by a troponin biomarker in adults. However, its effectiveness after pediatric open-heart surgery is still being debated despite the increased demand for congenital heart surgeries.</strong><strong> This study assesses</strong><strong> the relationship of</strong><strong> troponin T levels </strong><strong>with many surgical, biochemical, and prognostic variables.</strong></p> <p><strong>This prospective, longitudinal study included 70 patients collected over one year. These patients underwent open-heart surgery and required a cardiopulmonary bypass machine at the Cardiac Center in Erbil, Iraq. T</strong><strong>roponin T measurements were taken 4 times for each patient: the day before the operation, 4 and 24 hours post-surgery, and on the discharge day from the hospital. These measurements were correlated with many variables.</strong></p> <p><strong>The study revealed significantly higher troponin levels in children younger than three years old and in those with Fallot surgeries. Most patients with high 4-hour troponin levels developed short-term complications. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between troponin levels with the duration of the whole operation and the durations of these specific procedures: cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamp, and inotropic support. We also found that high troponin levels, particularly 4 hours post-surgery, can predict a longer-than-usual stay in the intensive care unit and hospital, as well as short-term complications</strong></p> SINAN YOUSIF NAJEEB NADINE A. MAHMOOD Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 129 141 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.12 VITAMIN D STATUS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1910 <p><strong>Child heart failure is frequently brought on by dilated cardiomyopathy and it is characterized by impaired contraction and left ventricular or biventricular dilation. Evidence from recent years has demonstrated that vitamin D is crucial in a number of cardiovascular illnesses that are now more well recognized. </strong><strong>This study evaluated vitamin D status in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and compared it with that of healthy controls.</strong></p> <p><strong>This study is an observational case-control study, which included 23 patients with </strong><strong>dilated cardiomyopathy</strong><strong> aged less than 21 years of both genders, and a control group that included 45 healthy people who were matched for age, sex, and body mass index at the </strong><strong>surgical specialty hospital-cardiac center in Erbil, Iraq</strong><strong>. From each one, a blood sample was taken to evaluate the serum level of </strong><strong>25-hydroxyvitamin D3, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium, troponin I and creatin kinase-MB levels. </strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>The study revealed that the mean serum vitamin D3 level and mean serum calcium were significantly lower in dilated cardiomyopathy patients than controls, and significantly higher mean serum PTH and serum creatin kinase-MB in patients than controls. The difference in serum troponin I levels was not significant between the two groups. Furthermore, the study's outcomes revealed a substantial, moderately significant negative correlation between hypovitaminosis D and the dimensions of the left ventricle's end diastole and end systole in children with dilated cardiomyopathy</strong></p> IDREES JAAFAR JALALALDEEN NADINE A. MAHMOOD Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 142 150 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.13 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CHOOSING PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION OR CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1911 <p><strong>Introduction: Coronary artery disease is a heart disease that is the main cause of mortality in both developed and developing nations. Management of coronary artery disease by coronary artery bypass graft surgery has significant complications for patients. In this regard, we aimed to determine factors contributing to choosing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft in patients with coronary artery disease.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong><strong> In this cross-sectional study, the patients who were diagnosed with coronary arteries disease who were admitted to rom Azadi Heart Canter and Vin Private Hospital Department of Cardiology </strong><strong>in Duhok city from November 2021 to January 2022 were included.</strong><strong> The c</strong><strong>oronary artery disease </strong><strong>patients were of both genders aged 18 - 75 years with various socio-demographic characteristics who received </strong><strong>percutaneous coronary intervention </strong><strong>or </strong><strong>coronary artery bypass graft </strong><strong>were the target population of this study.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><strong> The study found that the mean age of the patients was 58.2 between 34 and 75 years old. The majority of the study sample were male (66%). The study showed that smoking, BMI, and diabetes mellitus were the only predictors of receiving coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention the </strong><strong>c</strong><strong>oronary artery disease patients. Heavy smokers were 3.9 times more likely to receive percutaneous coronary intervention compared to non-smoker patients (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=0.00061). In addition, the obese patients were 3.1 times more likely to receive coronary artery bypass graft compared to normal-weight patients (95% CI: 1.1-8.5: P=0.0259) and overweight compared to normal-weight patients (OR: 3.6 95%CI: 1.3-10.; P=0.0173). The diabetic patients were 0.6 times (60%) less likely to receive coronary artery bypass graft compared to non-diabetic patients.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: The study showed that the patients who had diabetes mellitus and smokers were more likely to undergo the percutaneous coronary intervention. Being overweight and obese was shown to undergo the coronary artery bypass graft surgery rather than percutaneous coronary intervention</strong></p> ABBAS MOHAMMED SADIQ MIRZA ABDULAZEEZ MOHSIN ABDULAZEEZ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 25 2 151 163 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.14 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF HIROTA-SATSUMA COUPLED KDV SYSTEM BY RBF-PS METHOD https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1926 <p><strong>In this paper, the Hirota-Satsuma coupled Korteweg-de Vries</strong> <strong>system is solved numerically by using radialbasis function-Pseudospectral method. The radial basis functions are used to approximate the space derivatives in the system. Moreover, the system has become a system of ordinary differential equations with independent variable&nbsp; , and this system is solved by Runge-Kutta fourth order method, with the help of MATLAB R2020a. Also, a comparison has been made between approximate solutions obtained by the proposed method and exact solutions</strong></p> MOHAMMED I. SADEEQ FARAJ M. OMAR MARDAN A. PIRDAWOOD Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 25 2 164 175 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.15 PSYCHOLOGICAL BURDEN, HOPE, AND RESILIENCE AMONG MOTHERS OF AUTISTIC SPECTRUM CHILDREN; COMPARATIVE STUDY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1928 <p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disability includes deficits in social, communication skills and repetitive behaviors. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of psychological burden, hope, and resilience of mothers who have autistic child in comparison to mothers who have normal child.</strong></p> <p><strong>SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted using a non-random sampling of 195 mothers of autistic child selected from governmental and private autism centers and a comparative group of mothers of normal children from Duhok province Iraq in a period of three months from 15<sup>th</sup> November 2021 to 15<sup>th</sup> February 2022. A battery of instruments was used to assess psychological burden, hope and resilience.</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: The study revealed that the stress, anxiety, and depression level mean scores were higher in mothers who have autistic child, Stress; (M=23.31, SD=5.442), Anxiety; (M=11.78, SD=4.045), and Depression; &nbsp;(M=13.24, SD=4.744) compared to scores in non-autistic mothers (M=7.48, SD=4.576), (M=4.16, SD=2.643), and (M=4.91, SD=2.852) respectively. Furthermore, the hope and resilience mean scores were lower in mothers who have autistic child hope; (M=35.18, SD=7.716) and resilience; (M=2.82, SD=0.608) respectively, compared to scores in non-autistic mothers (M=47.69, SD=5.371) and (M=3.86, SD=0.481) respectively. The study found that staying in the center and being a divorced mother were the mostly demographic factor having highly significant relationship with psychological burden, hope, and resilience. </strong></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: The mothers of autistic children were significantly experiencing higher level of psychological burden and a lower level of hope and resilience as compared to mothers who have normal children. These findings are important for mental health planning for mothers of autistic children</strong></p> KAWTHAR ZUBAIR MALLA PERJAN HASHIM TAHA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 25 2 176 187 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.16 PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OF OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT AMONG PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KURDISTAN REGION https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1931 <p><strong>Background: Obesity and overweight are two of the main serious health risk factors worldwide. Teachers have been found to be more likely than other groups of the population to be obese or overweight.&nbsp;The study aimed to explore the overweight and obesity prevalence and determine their sociodemographic factors among public school teachers in a sample population in Iraqi Kurdistan.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: The cross-sectional study design was applied from September 15th, 2021, to April 1st, 2022. Stratified-simple random sampling technique was used to select 500 school teachers aged from 18 to 64. The current study used a questionnaire and composed of two parts: the first part; included sociodemographic characteristics, and the second part, consisted of measuring body mass index.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; The majority (40.6%) of teachers were aged 30–39 and 64.8% of them were female, and 54.6% were primary school teachers. The combined overweight and obesity prevalence was 71.4%. The higher obesity and being overweight prevalence was found in those over the age of 30, female, married, low to moderate-income teachers, and teachers with a diploma and lower education levels. The BMI of teachers was statistically associated with age (p=0.024), gender&nbsp;(p≤ 0.001), marital status (p≤0.001), income (p≤ 0.001), and education level (p=0.007).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among primary school teachers in this region. They are associated with socio-demographic characteristics</strong></p> REBAR YAHYA ABDULLAH RADHWAN HUSSEIN IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 25 2 188 196 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.17 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND CHRONIC CONSTIPATION IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1932 <p><strong>The bacterial infection in children is urinary tract infection (UTI) delay diagnosis and treatment lead to hypertension, kidney scar, and chronic renal failure. This study aimed to make the prevalence of UTIs in constipated children under 5 years old. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods </strong></p> <p><strong>This cross-sectional study was done for 74 children less than 5 years old with chronic functional constipation at Hivi Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Duhok Iraq. In this study children with congenital anomaly, immunocompromised, cerebral palsy and unconscious patients were excluded.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p><strong>The study showed the risk of UTI was 54.1%and the prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared to males (62.96% vs. 30.00; P=0.0115), in patients with Dysuria (76.92% vs. 41.67%, P=0.0002), and frequency of urination (82.14% vs. 36.96%, P=0.0002). No association was found between UTI and age, fever, and abdominal pain.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p><strong>Results of our study showed that chronic constipation have a significant impact on UTI, and children with chronic constipation have a higher risk of occurrence of UTI</strong></p> BAYAR HAJI SALEEM Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 25 2 197 203 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.18 THE EFFECT OF OLEA EUROPAEA MOUTHWASH ON C-REACTIVE PROTEIN , ANTIOXIDANT IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1933 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <strong>a chronic inflammatory illness with damaging &nbsp;of tooth supporting structures is called periodontitis Aim:</strong> <strong>&nbsp;to evaluate the overall effects of <em>Olea europaea</em> mouthwashes as an helpful to non surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT ) on inflammation ,plaque and oxidative stress (OS) compared with chlorhexidine ( 0.2%) mouthwashes for managing of chronic periodontitis</strong></p> <p><strong>Material and methods : A study will &nbsp;occurred at <u>Periodontics Department, College of Dentistry, university of Duhok </u>,&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;.The research composed&nbsp; from&nbsp; 72&nbsp; participants &nbsp;with chronic periodontitis 39males, 33 females&nbsp; ranging from 25-55 years old, both NSPT&nbsp; &nbsp;and&nbsp; data collection were performed by single dentist&nbsp; . &nbsp;Randomly participants&nbsp; were divided &nbsp;into three categories , each category included 24patients,first group receiving NSPT and olive mouthwash, the second group receiving NSPT and CHX mouthwash and control&nbsp; &nbsp;group &nbsp;&nbsp;getting &nbsp;NSPT only. &nbsp;Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and&nbsp; Plaque Index (PI) were measured . Salivary CRP, &nbsp;Catalase(CAT) , eight hydroxy deoxyguanosine&nbsp; (8-OHdG)&nbsp; would be measured</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: The concentration of salivary CRP and CAT for both groups were highly significant after 2 weeks , while other parameters were non significant </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion Both mouthwash have a significant reduction on inflammation CRP, ,oxidative stress&nbsp; and consider as &nbsp;powerful antioxidant&nbsp; properties </strong></p> HASHIM DAWOOD MOUSA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 25 2 204 209 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.19 THE EFFECT OF AMNIOTIC FLUID CHANGES IN LATE PREGNANCY ON MATERNAL AND FETUS OUTCOMES https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1934 <p><strong>The amniotic sac contains a protective liquid known as amniotic fluid. Two different types of amniotic fluid changes have been identified. The first is oligohydramnios, and the second is polyhydramnios. This study aimed to examine the effect of amniotic fluid changes on pregnancy outcomes and the fetus. A cross-sectional study was conducted by simple random sampling for, Four hundred fifty women from November 1<sup>st</sup>, 2021, until February28<sup>th</sup> 2022, in Duhok hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology. </strong></p> <p><strong>The study revealed that the greatest rates of polyhydramnios were associated with gestational hypertension (22.7%) and gestational diabetes (19.3%). The most prevalent mode of delivery in all groups was cesarean section. Hypoglycemia had the greats incidence in polyhydramnios at (11.3%). There was a statistically significant association between amniotic fluid volume and baby gender, with males being more prevalent in oligohydramnios (58.7%) and polyhydramnios (57.3%) compared to normal amniotic fluid volume.</strong></p> <p><strong>Moreover, polyhydramnios had more effects on maternal and baby poor outcomes than oligohydramnios. Thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were the most common types of chronic illnesses in polyhydramnios group compared with oligohydramnios group and normal amniotic fluid group. Apgar score, birth weight, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia, asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome were statistically significant with oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios and normal amniotic fluid volum</strong></p> VAMAN ABDULAZEEZ SAIDO JINAN NORI HASAN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 25 2 210 221 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.20 IDENTIFICATION OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII, ISOLATED FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN DUHOK CITY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1936 <p><strong><em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em></strong><strong> regard one of the most important nosocomial bacterium that may infect hospitalized patients especially in ICU, and can cause severe infections</strong></p> <p><strong>The sensitivity pattern of <em>A. baumannii</em> revealed that the organism was highly sensitive to Colistin (93%), followed by Tigecycline (82 %). A high resistance rate (100%) was reported for Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Ceftazidime, and Cefoxitin, while for Cefuroxime (92%) and for both Cefepime and Cefotaxime (98 %), also low sensitivity rate was shown by both Imipenem and Meropenem antibiotics against this bacteria with a sensitivity rate (17%), and due to resistotyping, a total of 9 different resistotype patterns were obtained; the most common resistotype was number (3) which include the following antibiotics : (PRL/TAZ,&nbsp; CAZ, CFP, AZT, MEM, IMP, AK, CN, NET, CIP, AMC, SXT, CRO, CFUR, LEV).</strong></p> <p><strong>Finally, this study demonstrated the significance of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> as a nosocomial bacterium that may infect hospitalized patients and cause severe illnesses, such as pneumonia, wound infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and urinary tract infections</strong></p> BLAND HUSAMULDEEN ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 25 2 222 230 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.21 SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAINLESS STEEL ORTHODONTIC FIXED RETAINERS: AN IN VITRO STUDY https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1937 <p><strong>Background and Objectives: This in vitro study was performed to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of three different fixed lingual retainers using two types of different adhesive systems and fracture modes (Adhesive Remnant Index -ARI) of different retainer’s wire-adhesive combination.</strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong><strong> one hundred eighty (180)&nbsp; &nbsp;extracted sound human upper premolar teeth were divided into two groups (90 for each group). Then each group subdivided to three subgroups (30 for each subgroup) bonded with three different fixed lingual retainers (Straight-8 strand braided flat soft wire 0.028 x 0.008 inches db UK, 3M Unitek coaxial multi strand 0.0195-inch wire USA and Ultra-Flex Lingual Retainer 0.9 mm x 0.4 mm IOS USA), which were bonded to the lingual surface of the teeth using two types of different adhesive systems (3M™ Transbond™ LR Adhesive USA and HeyTec Flow SE Composite, Heydent Germany).</strong></p> <p><strong>To assess the shear bond strength, the samples were debonded using a </strong><strong>Universal testing machine (Instron). For each specimen, the site of failure was examined using a </strong><strong>Stereomicroscope. One-way analysis of variance was used for the statistical analysis.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: There was a high statistically significant difference between the two study groups (p &lt; 0.001). Straight-8 strand braided flat soft wire combined with 3M Transbond LR Adhesive had the strongest shear bond strength (</strong><strong>14.0</strong><strong> ± 4.0 </strong><strong>MPa)</strong></p> <p><strong>whereas the minimal SBS was noted in </strong><strong>Ultra-Flex Lingual Retainer 0.9 mm x 0.4 mm bonded with HeyTec Flow SE Composite (4.5 </strong><strong>±</strong><strong> 2.7 MPa). </strong><strong>The site of failure in group one was predominantly at the wire composite interface (cohesive failure), while in group two was in enamel/composite interface (adhesive failure).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: The simplified bonding procedures (self-etching composite) resulted in unfavorable reduction in shear bond strength. There is still support for the traditional multi-step adhesive technique</strong></p> DIYAR MOHAMMED SADIQ OTHMAN ANEES MAHMOOD MUDHIR Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 25 2 231 243 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.22 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR DONOR LIGAND (XANTHATE) COMPLEXE WITH MANGANESE (ll), IRON (ll), COBALT (ll), NIKEL (ll), COPPER (ll), AND ZINC (ll) AND THIER ADDUCT WITH NITROGEN BASE LIGANDE https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1942 <p><strong>New complexes and adducts of xanthate of the general formula [M(cyclopentyl xant.)<sub>2</sub>] and [M(cyclopentyl xant.)<sub>2</sub>.nL] Where M= Mn(ΙΙ) Fe(ΙΙ), Co(ΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), Cu(ΙΙ) and Zn(ΙΙ), and (cyclopentyl xant.)<sub>2</sub>=[Cyclopentyl xanthate ligand], n=2 L= Pyridine, 3-acetyl pyridine &amp; Quinoline &nbsp;n=1, L= ethylenediamine, (1,10)-phenanthroline, &nbsp;the prepared complexes has&nbsp;been evaluated based on their magnetic, electrical, and physical characteristics. And spectral methods <sup>1</sup>H-NMR of (cyclopentyl xant.) ligand, Based on the effective magnetic moment and electronic spectra, the structures of the kind [M(cyclopentyl xant.)<sub>2</sub>] indicate a tetrahedral geometry whereas structures of the kind [M(cyclopentyl xant.)<sub>2</sub>.nL] &nbsp;has an octahedral geometry. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of ligands and their complexes were performed by the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to obtain the optimized molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), and electronic properties , thermodynamic parameters are done for four coordinates</strong></p> HEJA IBRAHIM ADEL SAAD.E. AL-MUKHTAR Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 25 2 244 260 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.23 GRADING MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS BASED ON PREPARED QUESTIONS AND OPTIONS BOOKMARKS IN BUBBLE SHEET https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1943 <p><strong>The process of evaluating students’ answers is a time consuming and effort for teachers, therefore, based on this, Grading Multiple Choice Questions (G-MCQ) is proposed to auto-marking answer without human interaction. All the human does, is to use digital camera without using expensive ordinary document scanner and machine-read for this purpose, then, evaluating and marking each correct answer is algorithm duty. G-MCQ is based on a prepared bubble sheet that contains (54) questions with four circles options for each question, G-MCO is programmed using Python programming language, passes three main process , the first one, is a preparation of scanned document, then, second one, is to detect bookmarks, First Question Bookmark (FQB), Questions Bookmarks (QB) and Options Bookmarks (OB) positions, based on detecting FQB, QB and OB, the final one &nbsp;is started to detect answers which are circles positions of each question from instructor. The algorithm is tested with input images with PNG and JPG format, the result of detecting of accuracy is about 99%</strong></p> SARDAR OMAR SALIH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 25 2 261 268 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.24 THE EFFECT OF FIXED ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE THERAPY ON PERIODONTAL HEALTH STATUS AND SALIVARY CYTOKINE LEVELS https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1944 <p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fixed orthodontic appliance therapy (FOAT)</strong> <strong>is universally recognized and most common method for treating malocclusion. Periodontal complications are frequent consequences of orthodontic therapy that need to be evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate clinical periodontal parameters and salivary cytokines levels among patients undergoing FOAT.</strong></p> <p><strong>METHODS: 30 systemically healthy subjects (males and females), age ranged from 17-28 years with health periodontium and malalignment teeth attended Khanzad teaching center for FOAT. Clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, debris index simplified, calculus index simplified &amp; oral hygiene index simplified) and unstimulated saliva were assessed at baseline (0 day) before </strong><strong>Fixed orthodontic appliance </strong><strong>application and after one and three months of therapy. IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were assessed in saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: The results showed significant increase in the mean values of clinical periodontal parameters and salivary cytokines levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 after one and three months of FOAT as compared to base line (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05), as well as significant decrease in the mean value of IL-10 level after one and three months as compared to baseline (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). No significant correlations were detected between periodontal and immunological parameters.</strong></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: Fixed orthodontic appliance therapy had a negative influence on periodontal health, since it promotes dental plaque accumulation &amp; gingival inflammation. As well as FOAT led to significant increase of pro inflammatory and significant decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokines</strong></p> RAHEL S. OMER CHENAR A. MOHAMMAD Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 25 2 269 282 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.25 KNOWLEDGE AND LIFE-STYLE CHANGES FOR PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AFTER PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1945 <p><strong>Myocardial infarction (MI) is a cardiovascular syndrome associated with myocardial ischemia. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an effective method for treating myocardial infarction that allows for a short hospital stay and rapid recovery</strong><strong> This study aimed to assessment Knowledge and Life-style changes of myocardial infarction Patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Study design and Methods</strong></p> <p><strong>A descriptive study research design has been utilized. A</strong><strong> p</strong><strong>urposive sample of (100) patients with myocardial infarction who underwent </strong><strong>Percutaneous coronary intervention</strong><strong> were </strong><strong>chosen to be included in the present study. Data were collected from 2<sup>nd</sup> October, 2020 to 1<sup>st</sup> April,2021. A</strong><strong> close-ended questionnaire of four parts was constructed by the authors to assess the knowledge and life-style changes of myocardial infarction Patients after </strong><strong>Percutaneous coronary intervention</strong><strong>, a questionnaire including four parts included to achieved this aim. Data were analyzed</strong> <strong>through SPSS software program Descriptive analysis and inferential.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p><strong>The study found that the majority of the sample were males (67%), a high percentage 40% of sample with age group (51-60) years old. Also, the study was found that 60% of patients had fair knowledge regarding heart attack, 61% of patients are moderately active relating to daily physical activity. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p><strong>There was some lacking of the necessary basic knowledge about myocardial infarction patients after Percutaneous coronary intervention</strong></p> MIAAD HUSSEIN KADHIM SABRI KHALF SHIKHO YOUSIF MOHAMMED YOUNIS Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 25 2 283 290 10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.26 NASAL CARRIAGE OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS) MRSA) AMONG MEDICAL AND NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS OF SHEIKHAN-POLYTECHNIQUE COLLEGE AND TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, IRAQ https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/1960 <p><strong>Background and Aims In population, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is present in the nasal vestibule of 35%-50% and one tenth of these are methicillin resistant <em>S aureus</em> (MRSA). This study aimed to investigates the prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage among students of Sheikhan-Polytechnique College (Public health and Medical laboratory technology Department) and Technical Institute (TI). Methods: During December 2018 to February 2019 data collection has been achieved. About 150 students are screened, 66 were males and 84 females with age ranged (18-24 years). &nbsp;A cross-sectional study was conducted and 150 nasal swabs were taken from students groups of several grades in various departments (Public Health, Medical laboratory technology and IT department). The &nbsp;&nbsp;samples were examined through standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests for all isolates were checked for methicillin resistance using disk diffusion agar. Molecular characterization using PCR test targeting <em>mecA</em> gene was studied. Results: The overall prevalence of MRSA was 27(18%), (12 males and 15 &nbsp;&nbsp;females). High prevalence found among public health students 12/27(44.4%) followed by information technology 9/27(33.3%) and less 6/27(22.2) cases in laboratory technology students. Students of first grade followed by second grade of various departments recorded high rates than third and fourth grade (12, 9, 3 and 3, respectively). Moreover, MRSA was higher among those students that live within their family 19/27(70.3%) than those that live in hostels 8/27(29.6%) and negative in those that live with family relatives. Out of 28 MRSA isolate 14(51.8%) were positive for <em>mecA</em> gene and public health students accounted more carriage 8/14 (57.1%). Conclusions: &nbsp;This study highlighted that students of several grades of medical study are more carriers and should admit enough information concerning control measures to limit contaminate with this pathogen</strong></p> NAJIM A YASSIN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-27 2022-11-27 25 2 291 299