Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> COPYRIGHT PROTECTION SYSTEM BASED WATERMARKING <p><strong>In digital information science, there is a crisis represented in resisting tampering and protecting the copyright of digital content when storing, transmitting, and processing encrypted information in systems where digital content can easily be disseminated through communication channels. Watermarking is one of the techniques adopted in protecting digital property and information. It is the technology of infusing a watermark with property rights in other multimedia through a specific algorithm. A comparison of the two digital watermarking methods known as DWT and DWT-SVD is offered in this article. In the case of using the watermark technique with DWT wavelet transformation, the decomposition of the original image is complete for the watermark implant, and in the case of the DWT-SVD watermark technique the original image given to the DWT is first decomposed and then the watermark is transplanted into the individual values obtained by applying SVD (single value analysis). Watermarking methods in this work aim to provide protection for copywriting. Later, presentations of the presented technologies are compared based on PSNR and MSE values. The results show that the hybrid DWT-SVD technique is significantly better than the DWT technique. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with another watermarking technique. The system is also very resistant to a variety of image-processing-related attacks</strong></p> IMAD MAJED ZEEBAREE HIWA ALI ABDULLAH FARHAD M. KHALIFA OMER SEDQI KAREEM Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 1 12 IDENTIFYING THE BEST-FIT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION MODEL TO PREDICT THE ANNUAL MAXIMUM DAILY RAINFALL IN DUHOK CITY, IRAQ <p><strong>Adequate knowledge of extreme events design for a long return period is required for the design and construction of such projects. This study aims to investigate the &nbsp;best-fit probability distribution model to predict extreme rainfall for the 30 years of observed annual maximum daily rainfall data of Duhok city. For the aim of this study, six candidate probability distribution methods were selected namely Normal, Log-Normal, Log-Normal 3p, Log-Pearson type 3, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gumbel Max. Then these models were subjected to the three goodness-of-fit tests: Chi-Square, Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov tests. Depending on the lowest summation of ranked scores of each probability distribution model, in the area being researched, the best-fit distribution is chosen. According to the analysis of data, Generalized Extreme Value distribution can be used as best-fit prediction of the maximum daily rainfall in a year followed by Log-Normal 3P and Log-Pearson 3P for Duhok city. Furthermore, the maximum daily rainfall calculated values for the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years by the GEV distribution formula of return periods were found to be 70 mm, 93mm, 109mm, 130mm, 147 mm and 164mm respectively. The study's findings can be applied to the creation of more precise flood risk and damage models</strong></p> KHAMLEEN A. MAHMOUD SAYRAN A. IBRAHIM IMRAN N. MOHSIN ZAHRAA M. KLARI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 13 23 PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF EOSIN Yellowish DYE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TITANIUM DIOXIDE AS CATALYST: IMPACT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS AND KINETIC STUDY <p><strong>Eosin Yellow, a type of heterocyclic dye consisting of bromine atoms, finds its applications in various industries, such as dyeing, printing, leather industry, and fluorescent pigment production. This study investigated the process of photocatalytic degradation of eosin yellowish dye in water solutions using titanium dioxide as a catalyst, as well as its degradation in the absence of semiconductors. The effect of specific factors including initial concentration of eosin yellowish dye and photo catalyst (TiO<sub>2</sub>), pH levels, and temperature on this degradation process was also tested. The results showed that increasing the concentration of TiO2 improved the above dye degradation. Moreover, it is found that shifting the pH from acidic to alkaline conditions enhanced dye degradation. This study also determined the order of eosin yellowish dye using integral rate laws and established that the degradation of the dye follows a first-order reaction at 517 nm</strong></p> RAAD N. SALIH AKRAM A. HAJI, IDREES S. KHALO HOZAN A. AHMED Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 24 35 THE EFFECT OF POST-PROCESSING VISUALIZATION ON THE IMAGE QUALITY OF A PANORAMIC DENTAL DIGITAL SYSTEM <p><strong>The purpose of this investigation is to quantify and evaluate the diagnostic image quality of dental panoramic radiography with and without post-processing visualization. 72 panoramic photos were analyzed and split into two groups: with post processing and without post processing image. Each picture was given a score based on the subject's perception of the anatomical zone and features, as well as the density and contrast of the image. According to these specifications, the digital panoramic system that included post-processing received the maximum score of 3.450.19, whereas the digital panoramic system that did not include post-processing received scores of 3.330.33. In conclusion, the use of digital post-processing visualization has the potential to greatly enhance diagnostic quality in terms of contrast and radiographic density</strong></p> LIQAA JABUR HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 36 41 A STUDY OF ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES IN WOMEN WITH HISTORY OF MISCARRIAGES AT ZAKHO DISTRICTS, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ <p><strong>Background and aims: </strong><strong>Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with miscarriage and abortion, and this association has been reported in different countries. </strong><strong>The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies IgM and IgG among pregnant women with previous history of miscarriage in Zakho City, Kurdistan region, Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Zakho city among women who had history of miscarriages from 1<sup>st</sup> April 2019 to 31<sup>st</sup> May 2021.&nbsp; A total of 460 women age ranged between 16-46 years (Average age </strong><strong>29.73± 5.93 STDEV)</strong><strong> were recruited in the study. </strong><strong>Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure antiphospholipid IgM and IgG antibodies. The relationship between age and level of antiphospholipid antibodies was performed using the Chi-Square test (Fisher Exact Test).</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: The overall rate of antiphospholipid antibodies was 31 (6.74%) for IgM, 16 (3.48%) for IgG and 9 (1.96%) was seropositive for both IgM and IgG antibodies. The study found that the highest IgM was 18 (11.25%) and IgG 10 (6.2%) seropositivity among age group </strong><strong>&gt;</strong><strong>30 years old. There was a significant association between age groups and IgM seropositivity (P=0.02; OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) but statistically not significant between age groups and IgG seropositivity (P=0.79; OR=0.9; 95% CI 0.3-2). It was also found no significant differences between age groups and both IgM and IgG seropositivity (P=0.28; OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-1).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies among aborted women was relatively low compared to other study. There was a positively association between IgM seropositivity and age group. Therefore, it is essential to conduct APA screening for women who have recurrent pregnancy loss and investigate the therapeutic effects of heparin and aspirin; this approach might improve fetal survival by starting anticoagulant treatment early</strong></p> SHIVAN H. YOUSIF IBRAHIM A. NAQID LINA YOUSIF MOHAMMED REBEEN WALAT AFDI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 42 46 USING MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION TO IDENTIFY FACTORS AFFECTING PLATELET <p><strong>The objective of this work is to find an application for the Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) model, which is one of the essential methods for categorical data analysis. The focus of this paradigm is a single nominal or ordinal response variable with more than two categories. Data analysis using this method has been conducted in various disciplines, including health, social sciences, behavioral studies, and education.</strong></p> <p><strong>To practically identify the model's application, we utilized real data from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients. Five explanatory variables were included in creating the main multinomial logistic regression model. A series of statistical tests were performed to confirm the model's suitability for the data. Furthermore, the model was put to the test by randomly selecting two observations from the data to forecast their categorization based on the explanatory variable values used.</strong></p> <p><strong>Our conclusion is that the multinomial logistic regression model enables us to effectively characterize the link between the explanatory variable set and the response variable, identify the impact of each variable, and forecast the classification of any given case</strong></p> SHERZAD MOHAMMAD AJEEL JIYAN ALI HAJI BANAZ HAMZA JAHWAR Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 47 56 THE IMPACT OF NATURAL PRODUCTS EXTRACTS ON ORTHODONTIC TEETH MOVEMENT: AN EXPERIMENTAL IN VIVO STUDY <p><strong>Background: The use of natural products in the field of dental health and improving oral hygiene is well established in multiple previous studies. However, their use in orthodontics and especially&nbsp; their impacts on&nbsp; teeth movements have not been previously described. Among the wide range of natural products spread in many parts of the world and the increased interest in them in recent years are green tea, pomegranate&nbsp; extracts and virgin coconut oil.&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Aims: This experimental study aimed to estimate the impact of green tea extract, pomegranate extract and virgin coconut oil on orthodontic teeth movement.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: An experimental in vivo study design was adopted to conduct this study. Forty rabbits were selected for the experiments. Inclusion criteria were rabbits to be of good health, without dental abnormalities, weight of 1.7-2 kilogram (average adult rabbit weight), aged 7-10 months. Exclusion criteria were rabbits outside the aforementioned parameters, and those who have dental abnormalities. Four groups were assigned with 10 rabbits in each. One group was control, and other three groups were green tea, virgin coconut oil, and pomegranate. Selected rabbits underwent orthodontic experiment , and&nbsp; the study groups started feeding on these three natural products. After three weeks study period, distance obtained from tooth movement and serum calcium and phosphorus were measured. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: Statistical analysis comparing the means of these studied groups revealed a statistically significant differences in the orthodontic teeth distance obtained by the coconut oil group versus the other studied groups (p = 0.03).&nbsp; Additionally, A student t-test analysis to compare means of serum calcium and phosphorus levels showed no statistically significant differences between the mean differences in serum calcium levels (p = 0.84) and mean serum phosphorus levels (p = 0.56).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: Rabbits received virgin coconut oil feeding protocol obtained higher mean orthodontic teeth movement distance compared to control, green tea, and pomegranate groups</strong></p> AHMED KAMAL ABBOOD MUSTAFA MUATH HAMED AL-SULTAN Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 57 66 ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS FOR ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING THE WATER QUALITY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DUHOK’S DRINKING WATER PLANT <p><strong>The physical, chemical, and biological parameters have been studied at six selected sampling sites in the Duhok Drinking water plant within Duhok city. Algal and water samples were collected monthly from October 2021 to September 2022. The water temperature ranged from 8.1 to 22.5 <sup>0</sup>C. The pH values varied from 7.31 to 8.93. Specific electrical conductivity ranged from 328.1 to 472.6 µs cm<sup>-1</sup>. Alkalinity values ranged from 120 to 195 mg/L CaCO<sub>3</sub>. Total hardness varied from 184 to 250 mg/L CaCO<sub>3</sub>. Silicate values ranged from 67.89 to 120.01 mg/L. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.73 mg/L. Values of nitrate varied from 2.3 to 5.8 mg/L. A total of 58 algal taxa were identified during this study, which belong to four divisions: 25 taxa belong to Bacillariophyta, making up 43% from the all; 21 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, making up 36% from the all; 7 taxa belong to Cyanophyta, making up 12% from the all; and 2 taxa belong to Euglenophyta, making up 3.5%. 2 taxa belong to Dinoflagellata, making up 3.5% from the all; 1 taxa belong to Xanthophyta, making up 2% from the all</strong></p> AHMED WAADALLAH SULAIMAN EZAT YOUSIF RAOOF Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 67 89 SYNTHESIZED, CHARACTERIZATION, AND INVESTIGATED ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF NOVEL HYDRAZON COMPLEXES OF MANGANES(II), COBALT(II), NICKEL(II), COPPER(II), AND ZINC(II) <p><strong>A series of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of hydrazones derived from dibenzoyl methane and aroylhydrazines namely benzoyl hydrazine(DBMBH), 2-furoyl hydrazine (DBMFH) and picolinoyl hydrazine(DBMPH), were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance, magnetic properties, IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR,<sup> 13</sup>C-NMR, and UV-Vis spectra measurements</strong>. <strong>Spectroscopic analysis showed that the ligands acted as tridentate ONO donors to the central metal ion. Physio-chemical investigations indicate that complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) have octahedral, tetrahedral, and square-planar geometries. The measurement of the molar conductance of these compounds in DMSO and in methanol revealed that they are non-electrolytic in nature. The ligand and its metal complexes were tested with DPPH to determine whether or not they have anti-oxidant action. Based on the data that was gathered, it was clear that the ligand has stronger antioxidant properties than its metal complexes</strong></p> VEYAN TAHER SULEMAN ABDUL GHANY M. AL-DAHER Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 90 105 OCCUPATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENTS OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ALTERATIONS OF KAR OIL REFINERY WORKERS IN ERBIL PROVINCE, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ <p>Workers at petroleum refineries are exposed to an extensive variety of toxic chemical compounds utilized in the production of petroleum derivatives. A total of 100 participants were participated in this study, which consisted of two groups, the first group constitute 60 refineries workers (34 non-smokers and 26 smokers), the second group constitute of 40 control participants (20 non-smokers and 20 smokers). The main objective of this work was to demonstrate the possible effects of the mixture of hydrocarbon compound gases and vapors emitted from petroleum products on different hematological parameters (complete blood picture), as well as to reveal the correlation of those biomarkers with exposure period, smoking habit, age, and body mass index of workers at Kar refinery. Data showed significant reduction in hemoglubin, hematocrite, mean corpuscular hemoglubin, mean corpuscular hemoglubin concentration and elevation in red cell distribution width value in the exposed workers when compared to controls. A negative correlation was revealed between platelets and body mass index, and between hemoglubin and service period within the refinery. This study concluded that the observed changes in blood parameters may refer to damage in the hematopoietic system due to continuous exposure to vapors of petroleum product</p> ARAM QASIM ABDULKAREEM BUSHRA MOHAMMED AMIN MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 106 117 PROCESSING AND IMPROVEMENT OF 2D SEISMIC DATA BY USING PRE-STACK AND POST-STACK TIME MIGRATION, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ <p><strong>The accurate interpretation of seismic sections in areas with complex subsurface geology, presents numerous challenges including diffractions, inaccurate reflectors position, uncertain seismic amplitudes and noisy lateral discontinuities. Consequently the interpreter unable to construct and identify the subsurface geology from the seismic image. In order to create an accurate and illustrative subsurface image this study aimed in processing of one line of 2D raw reflection data, from Kurdistan region, northern of Iraq. The processing methodology consists of two main procedures, pre-stack and post-stack time migration. Different parameters are tested in all processing stages in order to compare and evaluate their efficiency in seismic data improvement. The results showed that the post-stack time migrated section showed great improvement of subsurface image comparing with stacked section without migration. While the pre-stack time migration presented better subsurface image</strong></p> ZHIMAN FALAH SULAIMAN BABAN MUSTAFA YOUSEF Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 26 2 118 132