Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> University of Duhok en-US Journal of Duhok University 1812-7568 <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. 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All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MODELS FOR PREDICTING SOIL WATER RETENTION FROM A SEMIARID REGION OF DUHOK <p><strong>A study was carried out to examine the capability of bi and uni- models to explore water retention data for two different textured soils from a semiarid region</strong><strong> Duhok-Iraqi Kurdistan.</strong></p> <p><strong>A soil hydraulic model, can be used to derive the parameters of soil hydraulic properties for describing soil water movement. The program "SWRC Fit," which performs nonlinear fitting of soil water retention curves for the two examined soils using six models, was employed for this purpose.</strong></p> <p><strong>The six models are the Brooks Corey, van Genuchten, Kosugi, Fredlund and Xing model as uni models and Durner and Seki as a bimodal model used for this purpose.</strong></p> <p><strong>The program can be carried out straightly from a web page at; The program was used for determining Fifteen parameters of soil hydraulic for two different textured soils. </strong><strong>As related to Berderash sandy loam soil the LN uni-model revealed better performance than the FX, BC and VG models and at same time the FX, BC and VG models exhibit similar fitting precision on average. Whereas bi-</strong><strong>models is shown that the Durner’s bi- model (DB) revealed very well fitting performance than that of the bi-log-normal distribution model (BL) models, regarding to Zawita clay soil it revealed </strong><strong>that</strong><strong> the uni -models, of BC, VG, FX and LN revealed good fitting performance with similar fitting precision on average. Whereas in bi- models it was noticed that the log-normal distribution model (BL) gave very well-suitable performance than that of the Durner’s b- model (DB).</strong></p> <p><strong>After comparing between the uni-models and bi-models of the six mentioned soil hydraulic models from accuracy and coefficient determination (R<sup>2</sup>), for two different textured soils under the study it can be illustrated: firstly, for fine texture soil (clay soil) the most precision fitting performance was found by model (BL), whereas for light texture soil (sandy loam soil) the most very well-fitting performance was noticed by (DB) model, and secondly the bi-models hydraulic were better than uni-models in fitting performance.</strong></p> AKRAM ABBAS KHALAF Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 1 10 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON TESTOSTERONE AND TESTICULAR PARAMETERS IN AWASSI LAMBS <p><strong>This study aimed to investigate the effect of three different dietary protein levels on testosterone concentrations and testicular parameters in Awassi male lambs. Fifteen weaned Awassi ram lambs were randomly divided into three different dietary protein levels, 13% crude protein (T1), 14% crude protein (T2), and 15% crude protein (T3), with an equal energy level (12.1 MJ/kg/DM) for all treatments. The lambs were fed daily on concentrate <em>ad libitum</em> with access to fresh water. During the experimental period (75 days), all lambs were weighed weekly. Live weight and testicular parameters, as well as the serum testosterone concentrations were measured. The results showed that the dietary protein levels significantly increased (P &lt; 0.001) lambs body weight in both T3 and T2 compared to T1. Although there were no differences found in relative weight of the testicle to lambs live weight, the dietary protein significantly increased (P &lt; 0.05) testicular weight (110.83g ± 5.05, 135.32g ± 11.10 and 159.04g± 17.94) for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. There were high significant (P &lt; 0.001) effects of protein diet noticed on the serum testosterone concentrations (0.46 ± 0.05, 4.70 ± 1.21 ± 1.03 and 4.24 ng/ml) for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. There were significant differences observed in right (P &lt; 0.05) and left (P &lt; 0.05) testicular parameters, whilst there were no effects of protein diet observed in both right and left epididymis between groups. The results indicated that the dietary protein levels positively affect in live body weight and reproductive activity of growing awassi lambs</strong></p> SHAKER HASSAN AL-DOSKI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 11 16 EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepo L.) <p><strong>This experiment was carried out in the experimental vegetable farms of the Horticulture Department, College of Agricultural engineering sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq, during the spring growing season of 2021. The aim of the study was to investigate the response of summer squash cultivar, namely (Alexanderia&nbsp; F1) to four levels of organic &nbsp;(0 , 2 g.L<sup>-1</sup> Fulvic acid, 2 g.L<sup>-1</sup> Seaweed extract and 4 g.L<sup>-1</sup> Amino acid&nbsp; ) and three level of inorganic fertilizers ( 0, 1 ml.L<sup>-1</sup> Cal-Mag and 5 ml.L<sup>-1</sup> Phosphate-K) on growth and yield of summer squash plant (<em>Cucurbita pepo</em> L.). Fertilizers were used three times at the 25 days of planting and repeated in 10 days interval. Results showed that Spraying Summer squash with organic fertilizers especially amino acid significantly increased characters like (chlorophyll content in leaves, No. of fruit f.plant<sup>-1</sup>, plant yield kg.plant<sup>-1</sup> and total yield t.ha<sup>-1</sup>), Also inorganic fertilizers especially Cal-Mag had higher increased&nbsp; in characters ( plant length, leave area, chlorophyll content in leaves, No. of fruit f.plant<sup>-1</sup>, plant yield kg.plant<sup>-1</sup> and total yield t.ha-1), where as no significant differences occurred in (Fruit length (cm), Fruit Diameter (cm) and TSS) by using organic and inorganic fertilizers</strong></p> REZAN SAEED SHAREEF SANAA M.S. RASHEED PASHTIWAN J.M. ZEEBAREE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 17 25 APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES IN ANALYST DISTRIBUTION PATTTERN OF SOME SOIL PROPERTIES IN ERBIL PROVINCE, KURDISTAN REGION-IRAQ <p><strong>The study area is located in Erbil province, Kurdistan region, Iraq (that extends from Latitude 35.436151N to 37.319894N and from Longitude 43.374316E to 45.080122E) and aimed explain the distribution of some soil properties depending on geospatial techniques. Fourteen geo-referenced soil pedons have been elected. The ArcMap 10.7 software has been used in this study. Bulk density generally increases with depth in studied pedons. Interpolated map for distribution of clay particles, appears the higher values of clay particles and fine soil texture are located at the north, northwest, and decreasing into the south, southwest. Clay content has different distribution patterns. An alkaline studied soil pH with low salts content. Organic matter and total carbonate decreased with depth and an increase pedogenic carbonate that has a positive significant correlation with both slope and elevation. Active carbonate has a strong correlation with clay particles. Soil gypsum and total nitrogen decreased with depth in most pedons. The study concluded that decreasing into the south and southwest. Soil organic matter tends to increase as the clay content increases and higher values of organic matter content are located at northwest and decreasing gradually to south and southwest. Soils have different distribution patterns of total and active carbonates along pedons. CEC decreased from northwest toward a southeast</strong></p> HAWAR ABDULRZAQ SADIQ RAZVANCHY MOHAMMED ALI FAYYADH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 26 37 MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOMETRICAL STUDY ON ADULT RAMS, BUCKS, AND BULLS TESTIS IN DUHOK PROVINCE <p><strong>Fifteen paired testes of apparently healthy adult Local rams, bucks, and bulls were collected from the slaughterhouse in the Duhok province, to compare their gross morphology and biometrical parameters. Each testis position, form, structures, size, and relationship to other elements of the region were recorded. The testes of three species were oval, and the largest was in bull and the smallest in buck. The average weight, length, circumference, volume and density of both testicles in the ram, buck, and bull varied significantly (p≤0.05) from each other. The mean thickness and width of the left and right testicles in the three species didn’t differ significantly. The ram testicular density and volume were significantly different (p≤0.05) in comparing biometrical values between the left and right testes, The length, volume, and density of the left and right testes differed significantly (p≤0.05) in the buck. The circumference, volume, and density of the left and right testes were significantly different (p≤0.05) in bulls, whereas the other values did not statistically different. The tunica albuginea was soft and grayish red in rams and bucks, but was a dense blue-gray membrane in bulls. The parenchyma layer of the testis revealed creamy white in both ram and buck but was yellow to creamy orange in the bull. In conclusion, this study has shown the similarities and differences in terms of gross morphology, morphometry between the testes of ram, buck, and bull</strong></p> SALEEM ABDULLAH SOFI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 38 45 EFFECT OF MEDIA, BENZYL ADENINE, AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF OXALIS (Oxalis triangularis) PLANT <p><strong>The present study was conducted in a plastic house in the campus of Duhok university, Kurdistan region, Iraq, during the growing year 2021, to investigate the effect of different factors includes growing media (river soil, peatmoss and river soil + peatmoss 1:1), Benzyl Adenine (BA) (0 and 500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>), NPK fertilizer (0, and 200 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) per pots on the growth of oxalis plant (<em>Oxalis triangularis</em>). The results showed that the peatmoss significantly improved all the studied parameters compared with mixture and river soil. Similarly, benzyl adenine at (500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) increases most study characters except rhizomes number, single rhizome volume and single rhizome fresh weight. However, NPK fertilizer at concentration (200 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) per pot improved leaf length. The interactions between peatmoss and (500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) BA recorded significantly entire growth measurements exclude rhizomes number, single rhizome volume and single rhizome fresh weight. Whereas, the interactions between peatmoss and without NPK fertilizer, positively enhanced leaf number, vegetative dry weight, rhizomes number, and single rhizome volume, also the interactions of (500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) BA plus (200 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) NPK leading to encourages most parameters in the research. And the triple interaction among peatmoss, (200 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) NPK and (500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) BA recorded best results of most studied parameters</strong></p> BAN G. KHUSHABA NASHWAN Y. EDO JIHAD Y. HASAN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 46 55 A STUDY THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK COMPONENTS OF NATIVE AND MARAZ GOAT BREEDS <p><strong>The relationship between milk components is very important to build an equation of prediction for the future measurements. Data utilized in this study were obtained from Native and Maraz does bred at private farm in Sumail district/ Duhok governorate/ Kurdistan region of Iraq. A total of 102 samples of milk were collected directly from the udder after neglecting the first few drops to determine Physico-chemical components of milk like Protein% (P%), Fat% (F%), Lactose% (L%), Solid Non-Fat (SNF%), Freezing Point (FP), PH, Specific Gravity and ZP) by different Eko milk apparatuses. The overall means of P%, F%, L%, SNF%, FP, PH, Specific Gravity and ZP for Native goat were 3.43, 3.48, 4.33, 8.51, -0.52, 6.37, 1.03 and 2.30 while these averages for Maraz Goat were 3.48, 3.54, 4.32, 8.55, -0.53, 6.32, 1.03 and 2.32, respectively. Results revealed that it may predicting SNF % from either specific gravity or FP in Native goat milk; while it can predict SNF % from both specific gravity and FP in Maraz goat milk in addition to the possibility of prediction lactose % from specific gravity only. The highest determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) value for the best prediction equation in Native goat milk was found for predicting SNF % from simple linear regression (0.84); while the best one for the milk of Maraz was achieved for predicting SNF% from multiple linear regression (0.67)</strong></p> ISSA M. MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 25 1 56 65 MANAGEMENT OF FUNGAL POSTHARVEST DISEASES OF APPLE AND PEAR USING PLANT EXTRACTS <p><strong>Economic losses, due to postharvest pathogens in markets and storages, are magnificent. <em>Alternaria alternata</em> and <em>Penicillium expansum</em> are considered the most important postharvest pathogens of apple and pear fruits. This work was aimed to investigate the principal pathogens on apple and pear fruits, the pathogenicity of the main pathogens, and assess of <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> efficacy of peel extracts of pomegranate, orange, and rutabaga against the main studied pathogens. The results of isolation designated <em>A. alternata</em> and <em>P. expansum</em> as major postharvest pathogens. The artificial inoculations of both pathogens resulted in the prominence of typical symptoms and the reisolation of the fungi proved Koch’s postulates. The results of <em>in vitro</em> assay revealed the highest inhibitory effect of rutabaga peel extract followed by orange peel extract while the pomegranate peel extract showed the least efficacy against both fungi. Another key fact that noticed is that both rutabaga and orange peel extract were most efficient against <em>A. alternata</em> than <em>P. expansum</em>. The results of <em>in vivo</em> assays have approved that pomegranate peel extract was the most effective plant extract against both pathogens of apple and pear fruits</strong></p> AZHEN M. HASAN QASIM A. MARZANI DLEEN N. ABDULRAHMAN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 25 1 66 78 STUDY THE ABILITY STORAGE OF SIX OLIVE FRUIT CULTIVARS GROWN IN ZAKHO REGION <p><strong>Green mature olive fruit (<em>Olea europaea</em> L.) of six cvs. (Basheqi, Sorani, Khilkhali, Manzanillo, Chemlali, Frantoio) were harvested from trees grown in Zakho Nursery, Zakho District, Dohuk governorate, Kurdistan region/Iraq. Samples of each cultivar were placed in plastic bags and stored at 6˚C and 85-90%RH for three different periods (2, 3 and 4) months to evaluate their postharvest physiology and quality changes. Estimated were made on parameters such as (weight loss, TSS, total sugar, pulp stone ratio, fruit peel color development, dry weight, fruit decay and oil content). The results showed that Basheqi cv. Superior &nbsp;other cvs. in weight loss and dry weight, while sorani cv. surpassed significantly in TSS, total sugars. Khilkhali cv. exceeded in pulp stone ratio and fruit peer color development. Chemlali cv. gave the highest value in oil content and fruit decay. After sweetening the fruit, Chemlali and Basheqi cv. recorded significantly maximum value of oil. Prolonged storage period to 3 and 4 months significantly increased weight loss, TSS, total sugar, pulp stone ratio, fruit peer color development, oil content and fruit decay, while decreased dry weight. The maximum dry weight was obtained when fruit stored for 2 months</strong></p> SHAYMAA M. ABDULQADER NAHLA M. R. HASAN SARFARAZ F. A. AL-BAMARNY Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 25 1 79 87 THE IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS (CADMIUM & NICKEL) ON SEED GERMINATION, PHOTOTHYNSISES PIGMENTS AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF FENUGREEK (Trigonell afoenum-Graecum) PLANT <p><strong>This study was conducted at the College of Agricultural Engineering Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region. The aim of this work is to study the influence of Cadmium at (0, 50, 100) mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> and Nickel fertilizer at (0, 50, 100, 150) mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> concentrations on the seed germination, photosynthesis pigments and vegetative part of <em>Trigonell afoenum-graecum</em> .The results conducted that the heavy metals (Cd and Ni) and interaction between 50mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of nickel with control has a significant effect on the high of plant. Moreover, the 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium and the interaction of 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> cadmium with control of nickel produce a high value of fresh weight of vegetative part, in addition, the application of 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> cadmium and combination with the control and interaction between 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium and nickel had a great effect on the weight of root. The dry weight of plant was improved by adding 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; &nbsp;for each of cadmium and nickel but the best value was the combination of 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium with nickel, as well as, the interaction 50 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium with control had great impact on the seed germination, There was a significant influence of Cd and Ni on the 50 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> and 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium and 150 mg/kg-1 of nickel, ß carotene 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> &nbsp;both of the Cd and Ni, while the total carotene concentration was effected by the 50 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> for both and 150 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of nickel and Zeazanthen concentration 100mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of cadmium with effect of all levels of nickel, additionally, the concentration of £ carotene, ß carotene and Zeazanthen was effected by the interaction of 100 mg/kg<sup>-1</sup> of Cd and Ni and interaction of all levels of Cd and Ni was significantly affected total carotene concentration</strong></p> HADAR SAID FAIZY BALQES G. SAHI HONAR SAFAR MAHDI HARIKAR MOHAMMED SALIH HAMID Copyright (c) 2022 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 25 1 88 100