Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> en-US <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> (Editorial Coordinator) (Editorial Team) Thu, 21 Dec 2023 14:29:08 +0000 OJS 60 THE EFFECT OF POST-TENSIONED FLAT PLATES ON SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES <p><strong>Due to rapid population growth and limited construction space, high-rise buildings have been commonly used to overcome this problem. Post-tensioned flat slabs are widely utilised in this type of structures majorly, because of their light weight and low floor height. These buildings must effectively resist lateral loads which are more critical in this case. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse and compare the seismic behavior of post-tensioned flat plate buildings with that of conventional flat plate buildings. Time period, story drifts, and frames' moments and forces are studied and their results are compared. Response spectrum method is employed in the analysis. The results indicated that the post-tensioning system is more effective than the conventional concrete system.</strong></p> LARA EDREES , MOHAMAD ISSA Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EVOLUTION OF AL-QUSAYR WATER PURIFICATION PLANT WHEN USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL WORK SYSTEMS <p><strong>The research studied the chemical work system in AL-Qusayr plant, which includes sterilization and coagulation. Recently, the sterilization system was modified by replacing chlorine gas with calcium hypochlorite, which contains an active substance of 70%. Despite the advantages of gas sterilization, it was replaced by hypochlorite compounds due to the lack of cylinders, and work was done on new equipment for supplying powder, and studying the most important differences between the two methods.&nbsp; The coagulant (Aqueous Aluminum Sulfate) was added at the perfect dose 3 mg/l with the following indicators installed: PH = 6.8, coagulation time = 20 sec, flocculation time = 35 min. It was found that if the alum solution was not stirred in the tank during its consumption, or the stirring process took place at long intervals, the added dose would become incorrect, the dosing pumps would become clogged, and a loss in the coagulant would occur. Therefore, the research recommended the following points to obtain water with better specification: 1- The alum tank mixer must be operated every two hours for half an hour, so that the dosing pumps work more stable. 2- The discharge of the coagulant dosing pump should be stabilized by installing a Hertz converter with a value of &nbsp;(19.5 – 24.5) Hz within 24 hour, to control the amount of Aqueous Aluminum Sulfate solution dosed momentarily, so that the level of the solution decreases by 10 cm/h and the discharge is equivalent to 975 l/h. </strong></p> SUZAN SHABAAN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 15:03:29 +0000 FINDING AND DESIGNING DAMS USING GIS AND MULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKING <p><strong>Design of the dam passes in several stages beginning by exploratory studies and ending Select design dimensional of the dam. The exploratory stage studies are considered of the most important stages of the design of the dam to ensure selection of the optimal location for the dam and necessary detailed requirements to begin design of parts Dam. Suitable site for dam is considered as a multi-faceted challenge. The main objective of this study is to develop a multi-criteria decision algorithm capable of selecting the optimum dam site and its main specifications when planning to design dams taking into consideration all available data in a short time and with high flexibility. The algorithm is composed of three stages of analysis. The first stage is to generate a suitability map for dam site inside the entire study area while the second stage getting the optimum site among the highly suitable sites found in the first stage. The third stage is design of the cross section of suggested dam.</strong></p> <p><strong>To achieve this framework, a GIS-based MCDM tool for dam site selection is developed as a toolbar in ArcGIS9.3 environment. In this research, we suggested to build dams on Kneceh branch. The results show&nbsp; that GIS-MCDM in dam site selection would simplify the definition of decision strategies and facilitate an exploratory analysis in short time and less effort.</strong></p> RANIM AL JUBAELY Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 15:07:58 +0000 FIN SANDY CONCRETE REINFORCED WITH MACRO POLYPROPYLENE FIBER FOR RURAL AND DESERT HOUSING <p><strong>This research aimed to design a low cost fiber concrete as an alternative to earth-concrete reinforced with biomaterial fibers, where the latter is characterized by mechanical defects such as the low strength, the water degradation and the air erosion, as well as the continuous deformation related to the self-compression and unlimited subsidence of the bearing surface soil.</strong></p> <p><strong>The designed concrete is composed of fine sand, cement in small quantities and </strong><strong>polypropylene</strong><strong> fibers available on the daily market. This material is easy to form due to the availability of fine sand in nature and the possibility of its production without much skill; in the same time, it is </strong><strong>make at a low cost and short implementation time, unlike earth concrete where it needs time to dry and acquire the appropriate strength. </strong><strong>Laboratory work has shown good results as the light density, the large ductility and an acceptable strength capacity of this material</strong>.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> AFIF RAHMA Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 15:11:59 +0000 STUDYING STEEL-RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE BOND–SLIP BEHAVIOR USING DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION <p><strong>The present study has two points of interest, the first point is steel-recycled aggregate concrete bond behavior, and the second point is the reliability of digital image correlation in tracking experimental deformations. Recycled aggregate concrete exhibits lower mechanical properties than natural aggregate concrete, as international standards were designed for natural aggregate concrete, so their applicability to recycled aggregate concrete is still ambiguous. In this study, five mixes were designed to verify the steel-recycle aggregate concrete internal bond-slip behavior, for five different replacement ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), the test was supported by the DIC technique for getting the slip, adding to LVDT for verifying the results. The GOM program can analyze the test video, but this takes a lot of time. For getting the steel slip using the GOM program, a series of frames were extracted from the test video via the VLC media player program, and converted to black and white colors using the XnViewMP program to be analyzed in the 2D GOM program. </strong></p> <p><strong>The steel-recycled aggregate concrete bond-slip curves obtained from the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique using the 2D GOM program were comparable with those obtained from LVDT, which means that the DIC technique is a reliable method for tracking experimental deformations.</strong></p> <p><strong>The experimental results showed that the compressive strength decreased when the replacement ratio increased, where the decrease was 7.6%, 6.6%, 9.3%, and 13% for replacement ratios of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Bond strength decreased when the replacement ratio increased, where the decrease was 23.7%, 25.7%, 30.5%, 34.9% for replacement ratios 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. There was no clear relationship between the slip and replacement ratio. A comparison with the international standards for bond-slip curves showed that the model of Harajli gives close results for steel–recycled aggregate concrete. </strong></p> GHOSON DANHASH, YAZAN OUDEH, WASFI DIAB, GEORGE WARDEH Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 15:22:27 +0000 EVALUATING PERFORMANCE IN RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX PROJECT <p><strong>Performance is an essential factor in construction projects, residential complex building projects are widely constructed recently in Iraq. The research objective is to identify and evaluate key performance indicators (KPIs) &nbsp;relevant to assessing these projects' success.</strong></p> <p><strong>the key performance indicators (KPIs)</strong><strong> were specified according to the literature and the expert’s opinions. a questionnaire was distributed to extract the most important KPIs and factors. The questionnaire was carefully designed to ensure accuracy. KPIs were specified using the Relative Importance Index (RII ) </strong></p> <p><strong>The research investigated and identified the top ten factors influencing performance in construction projects. The findings revealed that the availability of highly qualified and experienced personnel ranked first, followed by the importance of reviewing failures and resolving them. The cost of materials and equipment, the</strong><strong> organization’s quality assessment system, and the coordination of information between the owner and project parties were also identified as significant factors. Additionally, the quality of equipment and raw materials, planned time to build the project, compliance with specifications, training human resources on project-specific skills, and the application of health and safety factors in the organization were recognized as crucial considerations. the work sequence according to schedule and the availability of resources as planned during the project duration have an impact on project performance. These findings contribute to understanding the key factors that influence successful outcomes in construction projects.</strong></p> AFRAH M. H. KASHKOOL Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 17:59:11 +0000 AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF RC ELEVATED WATER TANKS IN SYRIA UNDER THE EFFECT OF THE FEBRUARY 2023 EARTHQUAKE <p><strong>The hydrodynamic behavior of RC elevated water tanks is quite complex, and understanding the hydrodynamic behavior effect of the soil structure interaction is necessary for predicting the dynamic response of the elevated tank.</strong></p> <p><strong>In Syria, all RC elevated water tanks were designed to withstand seismic loads that arehigher than the 6<sup>th</sup> of February earthquake, in which many elevated water tanks had collapsed. In the current study, the reasons behind these collapses will be investigated, and solutions will be proposed.</strong></p> <p><strong>The present work will discuss a case study, which is the most common RC elevated water tank model used in Syria, with the most number of collapses through the last earthquake. This case study represents a cylindrical tank with 200 m3 capacity, elevated on six columns with a length of 15 [m], and a cross section of 50x80 [cm<sup>2</sup>], this model was design 50 years ago using the classical method where the hydrodynamic effect of the water was not taken into account. In the present study, a numerical simulation will be obtained for this tank, while the hydrodynamic effect of the water will be taken into account using the equations of American standards ACI 350.3-6, while the time history method, where the Turkey-Syria seismic record was adopted.</strong></p> <p><strong>Two strengthening methods ware suggested, the first one using bonding slabs, and the other one using bonding beams.The shear force, overturning moment and the maximum displacement were obtained and compared with those calculated from the strengthened models. It was noticed that strengthening methods decreased the shear force, overturning moment, and the maximum displacement.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> MAIS GHASSOUN, GHOSON DANHASH, FIRAS ALMAHMOUD Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:05:19 +0000 A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE EFFECT OF INTERNAL CURING ON THE PROPERTIES OF ULTRAHIGH PERFORMANCE FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE <p><strong>This study presents the outcomes of a research investigation to examine&nbsp;the advancement of an internal curing technique for ultra-high-performance&nbsp;concrete (UHPC). A range of commonly utilized materials have been employed to promote internal curing and alleviate self-desiccation in cement paste. These materials ultimately aid in reducing the probability of developing cracks in hardened concrete. This study also highlights the attributes of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC), including its density, shrinkage (both of which are&nbsp;autogenous and induced by drying), the&nbsp;microstructure of hydrated Cementitious Paste (CP), and&nbsp;mechanical properties (specifically compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength). </strong></p> <p><strong>The results indicate that internal curing (IC) exerts a more significant influence on the splitting tensile and flexural strengths in comparison to the compressive strengths. Several studies have reported that the incorporation of micro steel fibers in high-performance concrete (UHPC) leads to a slight enhancement in&nbsp;compressive strength and an even greater increase in flexural strength. This indicates that micro steel fibers have an observed influence on the mechanical characteristics of the material. </strong></p> <p><strong>The internal curing&nbsp;(IC) has allowed for a gradual improvement in the compactness and density of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ), leading to a boost in its strength. The application of super absorbent polymers (SAP) in internal curing (IC) is intended to tackle the issue of self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage, which can lead to early cracking in ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC). The experimental investigation revealed that portlandite partially occupied the cavities of the Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) during the process of hydration of cement (CH). The application of SAP (superabsorbent polymers) as an internal curing agent has demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing the inside relative humidity and alleviating autogenous shrinkage.</strong></p> MUHAMMED T.A., KARIM F.R. Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:15:24 +0000 COMPARISON BETWEEN LUMP SUM AND UNIT PRICE CONTRACTS IN CONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL PROJECTS IN KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ - CASE STUDY <p><strong>Contract management is generally thought to be a significant supporter of project success, and it would increase the probability of success. In residential projects, project cost management is essential. As there are different cost-control approaches depending on the type of contract. The major distinction between Lump-sum and Unit-Price basis contracts is critical. This study focused on showing the strengths and weaknesses of two main contract types which are Lump sum (fixed price) and unit price contracts from the Expert's point of view, people concerned in the field of project management and construction industry. Case studies include residential projects that were successfully implemented in the last five years in the Iraq-Kurdistan region. The study was done by comparing both types of contracts in various fields. (Cost management, time management, facing challenges). The strengths and weaknesses of each contract type were determined based on the view of 30 expert people who responded to a questionnaire survey. The results clearly show that the Lump sum contract type has strong points in clear project cost and clear profits (60% of experts agreed) amount. Also, it is simpler in management (63.3% of experts agreed) and can achieve a higher completion rate in a shorter period compared to projects executed by unit price contract (56.7% of experts agreed) While having inflexibility with design changes and errors (66.7% of experts agreed) and a less transparent and impartial bidding process (60% of experts agreed) can be viewed as a weak point of the lump sum contract. However, the Unit Price contract type has strong points in flexibility with design changes and errors (66.7% of experts agreed), while has less clear project cost and less clear profits amount (60% of experts agreed). Since Contract type is the critical element for the project owners and beneficiaries</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> GAYLAN M. MOHAMMED, SHAMAL ALI OTHMAN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:26:00 +0000 BIM TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES IN DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE CITIES <p><strong>To prevent the serious environmental and economic damages resulting from the traditional state of the construction industry, global trend towards building sustainable cities is going on. Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology plays a prominent and effective role in achieving this trend in building called “smart” or “sustainable” cities in different phases of the construction starting from planning, design and, implementation phases and even also in managing after the occupation of the building. This paper highlights the importance of applying BIM technology in the field of sustainable cities by linking its tools to the construction industry by documenting these strategies and highlighting the effective role of the many applications of BIM technology in the planning, design, and implementation of sustainable green cities of high quality in conformity with the international standards adopted in the assessment of BIM. Also, it presents the state of the current obstacles that prevent the establishment of sustainable smart cities in Iraq, and take advantage of the applications of BIM technology to achieve this purpose, the main findings were concentrated on the most 10 obstacles facing application of BIM technology in Iraq and raising awareness and making decisions to start using BIM to save energy consumption, reduce the time and cost of projects, to keep pace with the modernity and great development in the field of construction technology, universities must be obliged to prepare qualified engineers to meet the requirements of the current technological reality in the construction industry, mandatory courses for preparing engineers working in the public and private sectors furthermore, companies and engineering departments in the government and private sector are encouraged to apply information modeling in the implementation of all construction projects in Iraq are the main contributions of this paper.</strong></p> YOUSIF S. SAEED Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:30:37 +0000 THE WATER SAVING, INCREASING WATER USE EFFICIENCY AND WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF MELON BY WATER RETENTION TECHNIQUE <p><strong>The causes of water scarcity in Iraq is result of climate changes and the lack of water from the source, therefore, it necessitated searching for modern methods to conserve water and reduce its consumption and rationing. </strong><strong>A modern technology in agriculture by set up polyathelines sheet under the root zones of plant was adopted for conserving thewaterirrigation &nbsp;into plantroot zones, to reduce&nbsp; waterlosses of field, increase the water usage efficiency and econimecals water productivities. The our search, the sheets was set up below rootzones of melon crop at the summer planting season 2022 by using the freefield. The studies were conducted in a farm pace in Babylon province inSadat-Al Hindyai Town. The drip-irrigation system was usage in wateringsystem. Two treatments were used, in plot A plastic sheet is used and plot B without sheet. The supplied irrigation and irrigation time are estimated, the yield, the water utilizeing Efficiency and water-productivity of crop which comparing &nbsp;with the 2 treatments. The plot A is increased 3.92% from plot B. In coliclosion show that water-utilizeefficiency for the plot A is higher than plot B by 22.62%. The water productivity is increasing of plot A comparing with plot B by 20.65%. The water saving in plot A was 19.6% comparing with plot B. The reducing in number of plants watering at plotA gave 11% comparing with plot B. The aim of the research is to obtain on the best ways to reduce water application of filed and reduction the losses of water by deep percolation and evaporation. This technology is helping in reducing irrigation water requirements also increasing productivity. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ALI HASSAN HOMMADI, GHAITH MOHAMMED ALI MAJEED, HATEM HAMED HUSSIEN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:40:15 +0000 POPULATION GROWTH IN ERBIL GOVERNORATE AND WATER CONSUMPTION. A CASE STUDY <p><strong>Erbil Governorate is one of four governorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, it is the capital of the region. Different data about the population and water consumption in Erbil Governorate and those of Erbil City were reviewed to write the current article.&nbsp; The coverage area of the governorate is 14,872 km2, whereas that of Erbil City is 1131.44 km2. The population in the governorate is 1,763,351, whereas in Erbil City is 897000, and the growth rate from the last year is 2.16%. The water consumption in Erbil Governorate is 425,708,200 l/ day, whereas that of Erbil City is 253,800,000 l/ day. Different sources; however, reported different data about the population and water consumption. Some of the reported data showed large differences in the population and water consumption leading to large discrepancies. All those discrepancies are discussed and relevant results are presented. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> VAROUJAN SISSAKIAN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:44:22 +0000 GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF GALI ZAKHO TUNNEL, DUHOK, KURDISTAN REGION – IRAQ <p><strong>Geographically, northern Iraq, specifically on the border between Iraq, Turkey, and Iran, is considered a complex geological area consisting of different types of rocks, including sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. The height of the mountains in these areas ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 meters. Recently, many changes occurred in the region as a result of natural disasters such as earthquakes, random drilling of wells, and the rapid development of multi-story buildings, which led to many modifications in the geology of the Kurdistan Region. In order to construct any tunnel, the geological plan and profiles should be formed by evaluating the site investigations, and the boreholes should be drilled through the tunnel route. Accurate investigations about the geological structure and nature of the ground can be conducted during the excavation. Also, essential laboratory tests are done on core samples extracted from boreholes along the tunnel. The behaviors of the geological and geotechnical situation of the tunnel are presented, focused on the inlet of the tunnel. This work relied on previous geological investigation surveys that were conducted in the region and related to this subject, the results of geological field mapping and laboratory tests, and the geological and geotechnical parameters used for the design and construction of the tunnel. The best excavation method that can be used in this area is the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), based on the economic and area conditions. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> JAAFAR A. MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:47:52 +0000 STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE INCORPORATING POLYPROPYLENE FIBRE UNDER FIRE CONDITION <p><strong>The widespread use of concrete in construction is driven by its adaptability, strength, and durability. However, the environmental repercussions associated with conventional concrete made from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) have raised concerns due to resource depletion, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study presents the results of compressive strength tests performed on multiple concrete mixes that utilize eco-friendly &nbsp;geopolymer technology and polypropylene fibres that were subjected to elevated temperatures. The study investigated a total of six concrete mix designs that utilize ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA) as a total replacement for conventional ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Sodium Hydroxide was used as an activator with identical proportions between the mixes. The results showed that the inclusion of 1 kg/m3 of PP fibres had no significant effect on compressive strength. The results reveal a notable increase in compressive strength of over 50% when incorporating GGBFS and PP fibres. Upon exposure to elevated temperatures, geopolymer-based mixtures exhibited significant compressive strength reduction, with certain samples experiencing nearly 70% strength loss. Future research should focus on devising strategies to mitigate these effects and enhance fire resistance for practical applications.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JAWDAT TASHAN , ABDULLAH AZBAH Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:53:23 +0000 ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING USING MANTOSIVA MATERIAL <p><strong>Today we live in an era witnessing an increasing demand for energy at a time when the main sources of energy generation have begun to run out. Which is witnessing a significant increase in the amount of consumption, offset by the inability to meet the population's energy needs. It would be beneficial to reduce energy consumption in buildings to a more environmentally friendly level and to a more energy-efficient level, this paper evaluates the Mantosiva material in walls to reduce heating cooling loads. Using (block, brick, Thermostone block) walls and creating the models, which have been simulated by Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) and Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) programs. To do this, image analysis techniques were used, and the analysis of the models was described by the diagram parameters. Six types of walls were analyzed in two programs, Mantosiva was used as a replacement for the external plaster. The objective of this research is to study the effect of Mantosiva material on the energy consumption of buildings in Iraq and identify the amount of energy savings from the application of Mantosiva in buildings. PHPP and HAP were used to calculate the thermal loads and the amount of energy needed. The building is located at Longitude 44.44° and Latitude 35.44° in Kirkuk/ Iraq.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> YOUSIF S. SAEED, NADA S. ABDULMAJEED , SALIH H. NAJIB Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 19:01:43 +0000 CRACKS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES CAUSES AND TREATMENTS: A REVIEW <p><strong>Cracks are the most common problem encountered in any type of building. Hence, understanding the underlying cause, implementing preventive measures during construction, and employing appropriate treatment methods are of utmost importance. A variety of structural and non-structural elements of the building begin to show fractures due to mistakes made during construction and other inevitable causes. Therefore, it is crucial to spot these cracks quickly and take preventive measures. Although cracks in concrete cannot be avoided, they can be managed by utilizing the right materials, employing proper building methods, complying with the applicable codes and standards, and following intact design criteria. Structural fractures pose a safety risk to a particular structure due to their underlying causes, which may be attributed to deficient design, subpar construction, or excessive loading. Non-structural cracks, on the other hand, are those that result from underlying causes related to moisture or thermal fluctuations, creep, elastic deformation, chemical reaction, or issues with the foundation soil, such as moving, settling, or uncontrolled vegetation. The primary cause of non-structural cracks is internally produced stress in building materials, which typically does not directly cause structural weakness. This research illustrates various types of cracks along with their causes, prevention measures, and treatment methods.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MAND KAMAL ASKAR, YAMAN AL-KAMAKI, RAZAQ FERHADI, HISHAM KHALID MAJEED Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 13:31:25 +0000 PREDICTION OF BOD INDEX IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND NEURAL NETWORKS <p><strong>The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD is defined as the rate at which microorganisms use oxygen in water or wastewater during the fixation of biodegradable organic matter under aerobic conditions. The use of BOD as a necessary parameter for the effective control and monitoring of the wastewater treatment plants remains somewhat restricted due to the long time it takes by traditional ways, which hinders its use in real time. In this paper, a hybrid model of genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for the prediction of biochemical oxygen demand. The data used in this research was collected over ten years through the daily records of the Homs waste water treatment plant. the model was built based on the approval of each of the values of (COD, SS, Q) as inputs to predict the value of the BOD, and the performance of the model was evaluated by adopting an inverse validation error for selecting the best network structure in addition to other differential criteria. The optimal structure of the neural network was determined after a number of attempts and errors, and the results showed a high efficiency of the proposed hybrid model of (genetic algorithms and neural networks) by predicting the value of inflow BOD .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As a result of this research, a neural network structure was selected to predict the value of the BOD indicator which is (2-54-1) using the Hyperbolic Tangent function in the hidden layer and the logistic function in the output layer, the Levenberg-Marquardt was used as a training algorithm for training, The value of the performance function was 0.125, and the average error value of the three groups was 1.83, while the mean maximum error of</strong><strong> the three groups was 5.86, the value of the correlation coefficient was 0.99.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> HEBA AL JADDOU, MOHAMAD BASHAR ALMOFTI, DIALA SHEHAB Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 13:39:46 +0000 DIFFERENT MINERAL ADMIXTURES IN ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE <p><strong>In today’s world, all kind of materials are used to improve the materials used in project. Our research is about different mineral admixture on a type of concrete called roller compacted concrete (RCC), which has various uses in paving and dam construction.&nbsp; In this article, the effect of some mineral admixture on the mechanical properties and durability of roller compacted concrete has been investigated.&nbsp; Several mineral admixtures, such as metakaolin, fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash, palm oil fuel ash, and, either completely or partially replace cement. In this work, an attempts has been made to find out how adding these mineral admixtures can improve the performance of roller compacted concrete. The strength obtained varies based on the mineral admixtures produced by adding them to roller compacted concrete. The reviewed results of the work done have shown that 5-10% of silica fume, 15-20% of metakaolin, 10-15% of fly Ash, 10% of limestone, 5% of RHA and Coal waste powder, 15% of steel filing, 10% of (Bagasse Ash , natural pozzolan and Basalt rock flour), 15% of GGBS, 10% of POFA and Sugarcane ash, 2% of nano silica cement substitute has the best results on mechanical properties and durability of RCC.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> HERSH F. MAHMOOD, MASOOD ABU-BAKR Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 13:45:47 +0000 UTILIZING GLASS POWDER AND LIMESTONE DUST AS ALTERNATIVES TO CEMENT FOR THE STABILIZATION OF CLAYEY SOILS <p><strong>This study investigates the potential use of glass powder and limestone dust, byproducts of recycled glass waste and limestone quarrying, respectively, as environmentally-friendly alternatives to cement for soil stabilization. Laboratory tests were carried out on clayey soils mixed with varying dosage rates (3%, 6%, and 9%) of glass powder, limestone dust and Portland cement. The geotechnical properties, including Atterberg limits, compaction and unconfined compressive strength, were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in soil stabilization. The results demonstrate that both glass powder and limestone dust can serve as applicable alternatives to cement, offering sustainable solutions with improved soil stability. This research contributes to reducing the reliance on cement for soil stabilization, promoting environmentally-friendly practices in construction.</strong></p> HUSSEIN JALAL ASWAD HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 13:50:55 +0000 A DATA-DRIVEN APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SELECTION IN INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS <p><strong>The process of selecting suppliers is a formidable challenge in managing industrial construction projects. Construction companies generate a huge amount of data that is spread across multiple databases, but this data is not used to support decisions for future projects. To address this issue, a data warehouse was developed specifically for construction companies which are specializing in industrial projects. The proposed data warehouse utilizes operational databases from past projects, including planning and execution details, to organize and analyze data for supplier selection decisions in ongoing and future projects. The warehouse's dimensional model was built to meet the requirements of construction enterprises and the available data. The methodology employs Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), which enables direct queries and generates relevant reports to support construction management decisions and evaluate suppliers for different types of work. By adopting this approach, construction companies can make more informed decisions about which suppliers to choose for their projects, ultimately improving their economic performance. By leveraging the data available to them, these companies can enhance the quality of their decisions and improve outcomes for their industrial construction projects. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ALI AHMAD, FAYEZ JRAD, SAMAH MAKIA Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 13:59:14 +0000 EFFECT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON THE WATER DUTY OF THE IRRIGATED LANDS WITHIN A PART OF THE CENTRAL DISTRICT OF KERBALA CITY: ALIHNEIDIYAH RIVER AS STUDY CASE <p><strong>The rivers, channels, canals, and other water ways convey and distribute the water to the irrigation field networks. Distribution of water for irrigation purposes subjects to a principle called as "The water duty". This principle is important to satisfy a justified distribution of water for the irrigation projects, and affected by many variables. One of these variables may be the urban growth within the agricultural lands. So, perhaps it needs an annual evaluation to make the water distribution plan on irrigation projects works correctly. The present study views the urban growth that take a place on the green areas which irrigate from a part of AliHneidiyah river in Karbala city, Republic of Iraq, for the distance surrounded by the stations (0+000) and (4+000), to choose between keeping up the current water duty or re-calculate it depending on the last change in space of the green zone within the studied area. The cadastral maps and satellite images are used to determine the areas irrigated from the river inside the study area, and the change that happens in the nature use of these areas. The results of this study shows that the urban growth has an inverse proportion to the green zones, and that impose to modify the water duty calculated and water shares to keep an equalibirium status during the scarcity seasons. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ALI M. AL-FAWZY, ALI H. HOMMADI, NAJEM A. NAJEM, HUSSEIN J. AHMED, NADHIR A. AL-ANSARI AL-ANSARI Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 20:06:33 +0000 INVESTIGATIONS OF BURIED STRUCTURE ENHANCED BY GEOSYNTHETIC PRODUCTS: A REVIEW <p><strong>Protecting existing utility lines in densely populated metropolitan areas is a significant concern, particularly when new roadways or bridges are constructed over these vital infrastructures. Various accidents or natural disasters may damage them. As a result of the pipe’s wall full force and non-uniform load, shallowly buried pipes exposed to surface loads experience greater bending strains and are susceptible to failure. The reduced confinement of the soil backfill exacerbates these issues as well. Different geosynthetic products have demonstrated that they can be utilized to protect buried structures. To better comprehend the effects of different geosynthetic products on soil-buried structure interaction, this research performed a review investigation series for experimental, numerical, and field tests under repeated loads to evaluate the behavior of buried structures, soil responses, and geosynthetic mechanisms. A recap of previous study results and a discussion of the subject's research gaps are offered. Based on previous research, it is intelligible that geosynthetics are becoming a viable and sustainable approach for ground reinforcement. In addition, the findings demonstrated many parameters affect the degree of protection by geosynthetics, including the geogrid or geocell width, geogrid or geocell installation depth, geofoam height, the effectiveness of granular backfill stiffness and increased embedment depth.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MAYSAM ABDUL WAHHAB RAHIM, MAHDI AL-NADDAF , SHAKIR AL-BUSALTAN Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT SOME OF THE GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AT SORAN WASTE DUMPING SITE, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p><strong>The majority of waste disposal (landfill) sites are made up of the municipal solid waste (MSW), that requires a proper management and engineering design of the landfill sites is must; otherwise they hurt the environment. The geotechnical properties of MSW are essential factors in the overall stability of landfills. The aim of this research is to assess the strength properties of MSW from a main dumping site in Soran city, Kurdistan region of Iraq. For this purpose, seven Shelby tube samples of MSW were collected at the different locations and depths of the dumpsite. Natural moisture content (NMC) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed on the collected samples. Results revealed that the MSW samples collected in the middle of the dumpsite had higher NMC and lower UCS than the samples collected at the edge sides of the dumpsite due to higher waste quantity in the middle of the dumpsite. Hence, the strength properties of MSW decreased with increasing waste quantity. In addition, the NMC and UCS of the MSW samples increased with increasing depth. Eventually, the unconfined compression results verified the stability of the landfill.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> TAWREZ SHAABAN Sofi, JAMAL ISMAEL KAKRASUL , SHERWAN SHARIF QURTAS Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 20:21:47 +0000 GREEN CONCRETE ROAD DESIGN USING FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Green concrete is important in low energy &amp; resource consumption, no environmental pollution &amp; sustainable development. Green cement concrete is produced by using recycled waste materials such as activated fly ash, slag, and the results were assessed against reference concrete. This pavement approach uses slabs of reinforced concrete or cement concrete to create stiff pavement that is more stable. Promoting the usage of concrete made from optimized fly ash pavement can end the asphalt pavement's monopoly over heavy-duty highways and significantly reduce the amount of industrial wastes, including fly ash and blast furnace slag, In changed concretes cement had been, replaced by the weight of (FA) three test groups were constituted is the replacement of percentages as: 0% (fa-00), 20% (fa-20) and 30% (fa-30). Moreover, the findings were paired with concrete's performance on roads to examine the mechanism underlying the very durable fly ash pavement concrete's design. The experiments were carried out after (3, 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365) days of curing. Cement is replaced by from different weast, both blast furnace slag and fly ash. It has been established that, if the identical working performance goals are met, optimized fly ash concrete pavement may be utilized in place of asphalt pavement. The percentages of slag substitution by cement are (30%, 40% and 50%) by weight. Mechanical, physical, and environmental properties have been evaluate. The main mechanical properties—compressive and flexural strength were analyses; density and porosity tests were reported and analyses; and an environmental leachate study was conducted.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> RAFEAA M. ALHDEDY , ABDULBASIT ABDULAZIZ MUHMOOD Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 20:26:02 +0000 SOME OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND LEARNED LESSONS FROM BUILDINGS’ PERFORMANCE DURING THE RECENT TURKEY-SYRIA EARTHQUAKE <p><strong>This paper reviews the performance of the buildings in Syria and Turkey during the February 6, 2023, Turkey-Syria earthquake. The damage and performance levels of buildings in the earthquake zones varied from minor or no damage to complete collapse. The damaged buildings are classified as seismic and non-seismic-designed buildings according to the earthquake codes. It has been found that there are many reasons for building collapses, such as non-consideration of seismic requirements in design or construction, poor quality of used materials, the possibility of exceeding the earthquake intensity than the design intensity level, insufficient foundations, and soil-related collapses. Based on the reasons mentioned above, general recommendations and future visions are highlighted to avoid the recurrence of such damages and collapses in future earthquakes.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> RANIA AL-AHMAR, MAYADA AL AHMAD AL KOUSA, GEORGE WARDEH Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 20:31:44 +0000 PERFORMANCE OF SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTED WITH LOCALLY AVAILABLE AGGREGATES <p><strong>As is desired, more sustainable concrete has become the target of many infrastructural engineers. To produce more sustainable concrete, it should take into account the materials' cost and CO2 footprint. Coarse aggregate occupies more than 60% of concrete’s weight, making it the most consumed component. The majority of quarries that produce coarse aggregate are far away from cities, so the necessary transportation operations increase carbon dioxide emissions and the cost of the materials. Therefore, it has become necessary to find alternatives for these coarse aggregate types presently in use. In this study, five coarse aggregate types: three new types (limestone aggregate, white crushed stone, and white rounded gravel) were selected as coarse aggregate in concrete mixtures besides the two common coarse aggregate types (black round and crushed black aggregates) to investigate the bond behavior of the aggregates with steel rebar. A ranking analysis approach was adopted to examine the performance of the new aggregate types. Test results reveal that the new aggregate types perform well in bond strength and can be adopted in civil structural applications.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> MOHAMMAD REDHA I. ALNAFFAKH , HAYDER H. ALGHAZALI Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 08:45:29 +0000 NAVIGATING THE FUTURE: UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMART PARKING SOLUTIONS <p>&nbsp;<strong>In an era when there is increasing talk about the rapid growth in technology, it has become necessary to advance the service requirements of our daily lives, and the first thing we face is traffic jams and time spent searching for safe parking spaces. The smart parking system is a promising solution to face many of the problems that accompany large cities, where lack of work is considered one of the factors that cause pollution and the difficulty of movement due to congestion, which has become one of the main obstacles facing the community. The common way to find a parking space is the traditional way as the driver usually finds a place in the city through his periodic experience, searching, or luck. This process requires time and effort and may result in the worst-case scenario if the driver is driving in a city with high traffic especially at peak hours. Smart parking solutions are characterized by a specific architecture (such as cameras, sensors, communication protocols, and software solutions). But despite the limitations of these components, they constitute a smart parking solution. This paper discusses the most used types of components which guides the commuters to decide on the selection of component types to implement a smart parking solution.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> ISRAA M. AL ABUDY AL ABUDY, NIDHAL K. EL ABBADI EL ABBADI Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 08:50:20 +0000 DAILY AND ANNUAL DAILY TREND ANALYSIS FOR GREATER ZAB RIVER FLOW AT DERALOK STATION <p><strong>This study examines the trends in daily and annual discharge data from the Deralok station in northern Iraq over a 16-year period (2004-2019). To analyze these trends, several statistical methods were employed, including the innovative trend approach, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (MK), and Sen's slope estimator. Linear regression was also used to establish relationships between variables. The results of the annual discharge analysis reveal a clear increasing trend. The innovative trend method indicated positive slopes, with a value of B = 12.37, which is greater than 0. This positive trend was further supported by the Mann-Kendall test, where both tau values were positive, measuring 0.574 and 4.6, respectively, for Sen's slope estimator. Additionally, the linear regression analysis demonstrated a positive slope, amounting to 4.306 m³/year, indicating a consistent increase in annual discharge. Furthermore, this positive trend was observed across all months, from January to December. These findings collectively suggest a notable upward trend in discharge over the study period, with statistical evidence supporting the observed increases.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SAYRAN A. IBRAHIM, KHAMLEEN A. MAHMOUD, ZAHRAA M. KLARI Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 08:56:26 +0000 STUDY THE EFFECT OF LONGITUDINAL TAPERED FINS AND PINNED FINS IN A VERTICAL DUCT ON COOLING SURFACE TEMPERATURE <p><strong>Heat is dissipated to the environment through heat sinks in electronic parts and fins in internal combustion engines, the extended surface plays a significant role in the heat transfer of many heat generation devices. Depending on the generation source, the extended surface can be used for cooling or heating. In the present study, three types of plates are used in vertical ducts (flat plate, tapered fin, and pinned fin heat sink) under differing power inputs (10 to 60 W) and varying air velocities, from 0 m/s for natural convection to 0.5–2.5 m/s for forced convection. Then study the temperature difference with the distance of the fins from the back plate. The experimental result shows a good temperature difference when we use tapered fins more than pinned fins, which in turn gives a lower temperature difference than the flat plate. Also, temperature will decrease when far from the back plate for the fin.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> OSAMA A. MOHSEN, OMAR AL-KUBAISI, SUHA M. SALIH, MUSTAFA M. HATHAL, AYAD AIED MAHUOF Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 09:03:44 +0000 THE ROLE OF NOSTALGIA IN MEMORIAL ARCHITECTURE FORMATION Barzani National Memorial in Kurdistan Region as a case study <p><strong>Determining the concept of nostalgia in architecture and its effect on the architectural formation of the building is considered an essential need to get a complete understanding of the research problem, which is represented by the lack of clarity about the influence of the nostalgia concept on the formation of memorial architecture. One of the fundamental variables of the nostalgia concept is memory. This study defines the concept of nostalgia in architecture as the act of giving physical form to memories. Barzani National Memorial is a place that has an important status in Kurdish memory and has been selected as a case study, which includes a museum, gallery hallway, library, mosque, and an auditorium. The current research adopted qualitative and quantitative methods to collect the required data. Within a graphical analysis and questionnaire, four main variables of nostalgia have been tested: nostalgic memories, nostalgic types, nostalgic return sources, and nostalgic formation. These main variables have sub-variables arranged with their indicators in a form as a tool of measurement. The paper concluded that nostalgic memories and a specific place conjoin to produce the memorial buildings for national exultation, reflect the collective memory, and promote the sense of belonging in society. Considering such a role in nostalgia is essential for achieving memorial architecture.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ARMANGE ISMAEL BARAKAT , ALAN FARAYDOON ALI Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 09:08:22 +0000 THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF HOUSING UNIT DIVERSITY IN GATED COMMUNITIES IN SOCIAL COHESION <p><strong>Perhaps the new gated communities are good examples of urban design in their own right, and the questions that the paper raises are how the diversity of housing unit space affects social cohesion and how we can design communities to increase social cohesion among its occupants in the future. The diversity of land uses facilitates better social cohesion s and bonds, as good street coordination and open spaces calming traffic contribute to creating a suitable built environment for residents to generate a sense of place. Gated residential compound models seek to create residential units that provide a safe, luxurious and private life for its residents. They achieved it simply by gated themselves. Studies have confirmed that the main reason that prompted investors to build gated communities is their desire to achieve quick wealth and that the diversity in the area of ​​the residential unit in it contributed well to the speed of marketing the residential units built in it, so this research paper seeks to show the effect of the diversity of the area of ​​the residential unit on the efficiency Residential use in gated communities. The research concluded that the gated commu</strong><strong>nity has achieved a state of balance in residential use through the diversity of housing units.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HAIDER MAJID HASAN , HUSSEIN ISMAEL AHMED , NISREEN KHALIL ABED, ALYAA RAZZAQ ABED, SHAHAD ABD A-HUSSEIN, AHMED JAMEEL DASHAR Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 09:22:17 +0000 THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF TRADITIONAL URBAN CORE OF ZAKHO CITY <p><strong>The conventional urban core is commonly described as an organic entity. The urban environment holds inherent adaptability and responsiveness to the dynamic influences of social, cultural, and economic factors, which impact its various components and elements of urban design. This phenomenon leads to alterations in the spatial arrangement of the urban environment, resulting in the creation of distinct spatial structures that correspond to specific time periods. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the spatial configuration of the built environment in traditional urban cores, with a focus on understanding how these configurations relate to culture-specific human preferences regarding spatial organization. The research question aims to determine the spatial syntactic characteristics of the traditionally developed built environment. The urban core will be delineated by a set of configuration parameters that establish its spatial organization, typology, and organic structure based on user preferences. The study will utilize the Space Syntax methodology and urban centrality indexes (UNA) in ArcGIS by utilizing the existing urban core plans in order to accomplish the research objectives. The outcomes of the analysis will ascertain the various spatial arrangements and</strong> subsequently extrapolate the rationales and influential factors behind these arrangements.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LAYLA M. RASWOL, JOWAN BAYEZ KHORSEED Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 11:24:00 +0000 THE ROLE OF RULES OF COMPOSITION IN ENHANCING ARCHITECTURAL VISUAL LITERACY (RATE OF ARCHITECTURAL VISUAL LITERACY IN ERBIL) <p><strong>Architecture can be regarded as a system or a language that relies heavily on visual communication to recognize, perceive, and interpret the built environment. This visual language goes beyond the traditional literacy skills of reading and writing, yet it demands visual principles inherent in architectural compositions. Although language and architecture differ in their forms, they converge on common ground of communication. This study aims to determine the rate of literate audiences in architecture, which presents challenges due to the complex and dynamic nature of literacy and the diverse design strategies of architecture. By drawing inspiration from the influential work of Francis D. Ching’s book Architecture: Form, Space, And Order, this research evaluates how effectively the field of architecture, and its practitioners, engage and communicate with audiences through visual means. This study illuminates the rate of the literate audience by providing a framework applied to selected case studies in Erbil city featuring diverse architectural compositions. The expected results are, first, providing guidelines of principles derived from Ching’s work to enrich architectural practices. Secondly, exploring effective visual communication through enhanced visual literacy utilizing these principles. By understanding the audience's ability to read architectural language, this research lays the foundation for future design practices, empowering architects to create communicative built environments.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HAMEEDA I. MUSLAT, MAHMOOD AHMED KHAYAT Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 11:28:31 +0000 A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM BASED ON OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR OPTIMIZING DUHOK UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC PROBLEM <p><strong>Combinatorial optimization problems have previously proven to be significant and appealing for both basic research and practical applications. In this work, a real-life problem at Duhok University is considered, named as Duhok University Traffic Problem. Traffic bottlenecks, </strong><strong>difficulties in moving, transportation cost in terms of time and financial and other problems in Duhok University are addressed as a series problems. In this paper a decision support system based on optimization methods are proposed in order to optimize </strong><strong>a public transportation network to reduce the impact of the considered problem. The authors are first simulated the problem as a well-known optimization problem named as travelling salesman problem. Second, the problem is represented mathematically by introducing a mathematical programming model. Third and last, a decision support system based on three optimization methods are proposed in order to help in solving the considered problem, which are: greedy method, local search method, and artificial bee colony method.</strong><strong> Computational results showed that, all the three proposed algorithms optimized and enhanced the transportation network in Duhok University, where Artificial Bee Colony presented high quality improvement by </strong><strong>36.48%</strong><strong> and outperformed both, the greedy algorithm (</strong><strong>13.81%</strong><strong>) and the local search algorithms (</strong><strong>31.45%</strong><strong>).</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SAGVAN ALI SALEH, SERWAN ALI MOHAMMAD, RAFID SALIH SARHAN, RAWAN RASHAD KAMAL, HUDA MAWLOUD AHMED, AHLAM YOUSIF YOUNIS, KAHRAMAN KHODEDA MIRZA Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 11:46:11 +0000 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENCAPSULATION IN JAVA AND PYTHON: SYNTAX AND IMPLEMENTATION DIFFERENCES <p><strong>Encapsulation is a fundamental principle of object-oriented programming, which allows for the hiding of implementation details and the protection of data from unauthorized access. This paper evaluates the concept of encapsulation in the programming languages Java and Python. The study examines the ways in which encapsulation is implemented in each language, including access modifiers and methods of data hiding. This research paper’s findings demonstrate that while both languages support encapsulation, the syntax and specific implementation vary in each of them. In particular, Java's use of access modifiers such as private, protected and public allows for a stricter level of encapsulation compared to Python's use of the '_' and '__' prefix to denote private variables and methods.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Skala Kamaran Omer, Star Dawood Mirkhan , Nyan Najat Hussein, Aveen Zuber Ali, Tarik Ahmed Rashid, HUSSEIN MOHAMMED ALI, MAHMOOD YASHAR HAMZA, POORNIMA NEDUNCHEZHIAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HYBRID METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHMS MPPT UNDER PARTIAL SHADING CONDITION <p><strong>This paper investigates the effectiveness of a hybrid metaheuristic optimization approach to achieving the maximum power from PV solar systems under partial shading. Stochastic metaheuristic optimization is utilized to guarantee the identification of optimal solutions within constrained timeframes. The proposed algorithms combine the Firefly Optimization Algorithm (FOA) and Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA). Metaheuristic optimization proves advantageous due to its ability to tackle complex problems regardless of their structure. In this paper, settling time, speed convergence overshoot, and efficiency are considered under different values of irradiance. The sample time is carefully chosen to reach the optimal tracking time, making dynamic optimization the selected approach. The incorporation of FOA harnesses the search capability of SSA, leading to power outputs that closely align with those of the PV system. The utilization of SSA simplifies optimization complexity by utilizing a single control parameter. Additionally, the integration of FOA enhances the search capability of SSA, resulting in power outputs closely aligned with the PV system. A dc-dc boost converter is employed to achieve the desired output dc voltage. Matlab/Simulink is used to simulate the proposed system. The simulation results demonstrate satisfactory performance and the ability to achieve optimal Maximum Power Point (MPP) under partial shading conditions.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hayder Ahmad Hamad, Hanan Mikhael D. Habbi, Afaneen Answer abbood Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 14:43:16 +0000 HIGH PERFORMANCE OF CODING AND DECODING PROCESS FOR DATA COMPRESSION USING VARIABLE IN LENGTH CODING <p><strong>Data compression using Huffman coding refers to decreasing the quantity of data without decreasing the quality of original file. Besides that, it can retrieve original data in decompression process without losing any details. In this research, an 9bit/8bit encoding and decoding process divide the block design. The input transmission code consists of 9-bit which are variable in length coding and can be suitable for high-speed applications. Coding and decoding blocks were designed separately. The encoder module gets the 9-bit data used as input and delivers the 8-bit coded-output from encoder design. this output data used as input to the decoder module to get the 8-bit as output form decoder design. In this research, the proposed design includes encoder and decoder were achieved Compression Ratio up to 52% from original data size and saving percentage up to 47.95%. The suggested design was implemented by using ASIC and FPGA design methodologies to execute the compression and decompression architectures. The architecture of coding and decoding process has been created using Verilog HDL language. Quartus II 11.1 Web Edition (32-Bit). In addition, simulated using ModelSim-Altera 10.0c (Quartus II 11.1) Starter Edition. And it is implemented using Altera FPGA (DE2) for real time implementation. Finally, all of the blocks were combined together to have an integrated system.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MAAN HAMEED, AHMED LATEEF HAMEED, NASEER ALWAN HUSSEIN Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 14:49:58 +0000 EFFECTIVE DELEGATION AND LEADERSHIP IN SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT <p><strong>Delegation and leadership are critical components of software management, as they play a crucial role in determining the success of software development projects. This study examined the relationship between delegation and leadership in software management and the impact of these factors on project outcomes. Results showed that effective delegation and transformational leadership styles can improve workflow, enhance team motivation and productivity, and ultimately lead to successful software development projects. The findings of this study have important implications for software management practices, as they suggest that organizations and software managers should prioritize the development of effective delegation and leadership practices to ensure the success of their software development initiatives. Further research is needed to explore the complex interplay between delegation and leadership in software management, and to identify best practices for improving these processes.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> STAR DAWOOD MIRKHAN , SKALA KAMARAN OMER, TARIK AHMED RASHID, HUSSEIN MOHAMMED ALI, MAHMOOD YASHAR HAMZA, POORNIMA NEDUNCHEZHIAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 14:58:03 +0000 SINGLE-THREADING BASED DISTRIBUTED-MULTIPROCESSOR-MACHINES AFFECTING BY DISTRIBUTED-PARALLEL-COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY <p><strong>The objective of this study is to propose a methodology for developing a distributed memory system with multiple computers and multicore processors. This system can be implemented on distributed-shared memory systems, utilizing the principles of client/server architecture. The presented system consists of two primary components: monitoring and managing programs executed on distributed-multi-core architectures with 2, 4, and 8 CPUs in order to accomplish a specific task. In the context of problem-solving, the network has the capacity to support multiple servers along with one client. During the implementation phase, it is imperative to consider three distinct scenarios that encompass the majority of design alternatives. The proposed system has the capability to compute the Total-Task-Time (TTT) on the client side, as well as the timings of all relevant servers, including Started, Elapsed, CPU, Kernel, User, Waiting, and Finish. When designing User Programs (UPs), the following creation scenario is carefully considered: The term "single-process-multi-thread" (SPMT) refers to a computing paradigm where a single process is executed by multiple threads The results unequivocally indicate that an augmentation in processing capacity corresponds to a proportional enhancement in the speed at which problems are solved. This pertains specifically to the quantity of servers and the number of processors allocated to each server. Consequently, the duration required to finish the assignment increased by a factor of 9.156, contingent upon three distinct scenarios involving SPMT UPs. The C# programming language is utilized for the coding process in the implementation of this system.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h1><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></h1> DILDAR MASOOD ABDULQADER, SUBHI R. M. ZEEBAREE, RIZGAR R. ZEBARI, SAGVAN ALI SALEH, ZRYAN NAJAT RASHID, MOHAMMED A. M. SADEEQ Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 15:06:45 +0000 AN EFFICIENT DYNAMIC RESOURCE SHARING FOR A MULTI-VENDOR WIRELESS NETWORK VIRTUALIZATION <p><strong>Service diversity in the fifth generation of mobile communication (5G) has introduced crucial challenges in the resource management and Radio Access Network (RAN) infrastructure. To overwhelm these difficulties, Wireless Network Virtualization (WNV) has been proposed as a promising key technology to enable emerging services and respond to user and operator demands. WNV reduces operator implementation and operation costs and utilizes the resources to be distributed dynamically among virtual operators by decoupling hardware infrastructure and service providers into different entities.</strong></p> <p><strong>In this work, a typical WNV system is designed and simulated to visualize system operation and task management among the Infrastructure Providers (InPs), Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO), and user equipment (UE). In the system design, multiple InPs own the hardware resources and provide isolated slices to the MVNOs, where several MVNOs purchase channel resources from InPs and service their UEs. A new system model is derived mathematically where a dynamic inter-user inference is considered for the first time with multiple InPs under 5G radio conditions. Moreover</strong><strong>, an economic model is integrated with the proposed WNV system to evaluate overall expenses and revenue for each player. The process of selecting MVNOs by different InPs and dynamically allocating resources to the UEs is proposed to be two levels; paring UEs with the MVNOs at the first Level and then distributing InP resources to the UEs via pre-selected MVNOs at the second Level.</strong></p> <p><strong>For this purpose, hierarchical game-matching and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms are proposed to address dynamic resource allocation complexity and provide optimum resources to the UEs, maximizing InPs revenue and user throughput. The simulation results show both algorithms' robustness in optimizing the expenses and gaining UEs throughput. Furthermore, integrating the economic scheme with the derived WNV model facilitates the optimization of profits and cost reduction for the involved players. This methodology guarantees the financial viability of the network and ultimately provides advantages to all stakeholders. As well as the obtained UEs engagement reached 98% of the total users who contributed to the resource request. It is a high rate of user admission within acceptable time intervals and complexity. Results indicated a trade-off between the two proposed algorithms regarding convergence and accuracy; PSO obtained faster convergence, while the matching game provided higher throughput and better end-user performance.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> CHNAR MUSTAFA MOHAMMED , SALAR KHEDER SHAIKHAH Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 15:10:37 +0000 DESIGN AND ANALYASIS A BROADBAND PRINTED-DIPOLE ANTENNA FOR 4G/5G MOBILE SMARTPHONE <p><strong>Wireless communications are of great importance in our lives, especially mobile phones, and based on this importance, we propose in this research an antenna . It works on the medium frequencies of both 4G/5G technologies . The proposed antenna has dimension&nbsp; (17.7×7) mm (length x width ) made of copper and a substrate FR-4 the finished thickness is 1.67mm&nbsp; .This design is connected in the port it equals 1mm by using&nbsp; microstrip line method . The ground and substrate layers are a symmetrical rectangle. The patch is also simple, as it represents a strip of copper that surrounds the rectangle on three sides. It has only one line in the middle with a length of 8.5mm and a width of 1mm. &nbsp;The design is simple as it does not have any openings. Small size and small thickness makes it suitable for the size of modern mobiles. The micorstrio patch antenna is was designed by using CST studio -2019 and manufactured via the ProtoMat-100 machine. The antenna operates at range frequencies (2.35-3.74) GHz&nbsp; and .It has resonance frequency 2.9 GHz at return loss of -54 dB</strong>.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ABEER KAMIL HACHIM, MOHAMMED ABOUD KADHIM , HAMOOD SHEHAB HAMID Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 15:15:24 +0000 ECG SIGNAL DENOISING USING DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM <p><strong>The electrocardiogram (ECG) is crucial and widely used diagnostic tool for heart diseases; however, the presence of various noise components can distort the ECG waveform, leading to inaccurate interpretations. This research focuses on the utilization of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for denoising ECG signals. In this paper, we introduce an innovative DWT-based architecture for ECG denoising, designed to effectively eliminate reference line ᴡander, power line interference, white noise, muscle artifacts, and impulsive noise through a single comprehensive process that incorporates signal decomposition and thresholding. Experimental assessments were performed on the MIT-BIH database, utilizing a 360 Hz sampling frequency over a 15-second duration. Denoising performance was calculated by measuring improvements in Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) under various noise power levels. Our proposed DWT-based algorithm consistently outperformed traditional filter-based techniques, demonstrating superior MSE and SNR enhancements. Notably, the average enhancements in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) ranged up to 10% for baseline wander, a reduction of -15 dB for power-line interference, and an increase of 50% for white noise when compared to conventional low-pass filter, notch filter, and moving average filter approaches, respectively. These improvements were consistently experimental across different noise power levels, highlighting substantial gains in signal clarity. Additionally, significant reductions in MSE, with improvements of 0.003, further underscored the effectiveness of proposed architecture. These quantitative results affirm the accuracy and efficiency of our method, offering substantial enhancements in ECG signal quality and clarity. This improvement contributes to more precise subsequent analyses, ultimately benefiting the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MOHAMMED ABDALLAH ALI , SERWAN ALI , AHMED KHORSHEED Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 23 Dec 2023 15:25:05 +0000 A NOVEL NETWORK ANALYZING TOOL (NNAT) FOR COMPLEX NETWORK INFORMATION VISUALIZATION <p><strong>Analyzing and monitoring networks can be difficult, especially when large volumes of packets fly back and forth between devices.&nbsp; Therefore, visual network analysis provides a solution by allowing users to visualize and interpret complex network data more intuitively and interactively. Traditional tools have limited visualization capabilities and mostly represent data in a tabular format that is difficult to analyze and time-consuming for the users. In this paper, a novel network analyzing tool (NNAT) is proposed to integrate packet sniffing, visual analysis of packets, and live network scanning within the same tool. Also, presenting the analyzed data via different interfaces with the capability of filtering specific information. The function variety of the proposed tool reduces the number of tools to be used by network admins. Also, the flexibility of the proposed tool in the data visualization and presentation with proper diagrams and drawings makes it to be user-friendly, in additional to its inherent outperformance explore and analyze large datasets compared to traditional tools.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ASMA BARZHAWAND ISMAIL, ROZHGAR RZGAR SABR , SALAR KHEDER SHAIKHAH Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 05:56:59 +0000 5G URBAN CELL PLANNING ESTIMATION AND BASE STATION THROUGHPUT DETERMINATION <p><strong>Operators need to consider several factors that could impact a network's profitability with the increasing demand for 5G wireless telecommunications. These factors include the environment, base station layouts, and frequency scheme patterns. 5G systems promise low-power devices, comparable coverage strategies, high dependability, low latency, and a million-fold increase in scheme capacity over current networks. The first and most crucial step in creating a 5G network and radio network design is to calculate the number of cells in a specific area. To estimate the number of cells, this article utilizes the Radio Link Budget (RLB) computation method to calculate each cell's maximum permitted path losses. Additionally, determining the number of 5G base stations required to cover an area and maximize cell performance adequately necessitates carefully evaluating the center frequency, 3GPP propagation model, maximum permitted route losses, and channel bandwidth. To accomplish this, four different scenarios have been considered, using four different center frequencies, and for each scenario, two 3GPP propagation models (Urban Macro 3D-UMa NLOS and Urban Micro 3D-UMi NLOS) are utilized to find the estimated 5G cell number for an urban area of 4 km2. This article emphasizes the importance of carefully considering several variables, such as the center frequency, 3GPP propagation model, maximum permitted route losses, and channel bandwidth, to ensure reliable signal transmission and reception, high data rates, and efficient utilization of network resources—further the more. The second objective of this article is the 5G new radio throughput calculation, which is essential for determining the sufficient fronthaul link data rate required for planned C-RAN and 5G cell structures.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> KAWAN FAIQ AHMED , ASAAD MUBDIR JASSIM AL-HINDAWI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:04:39 +0000 REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODEL FOR FINDING OPTIMAL PATH <p><strong>Reinforcement learning (RL) has become a powerful method for addressing complex optimization challenges, such as determining optimal (shortest) paths across various fields. This study aims to design and examine RL algorithms to identify the shortest path in expansive and dynamic environments. Our research advances RL algorithms for optimal pathfinding, showcasing Q-Learning's scalability, path length, and cumulative rewards superiority, enriching optimization methodologies, and guiding future RL explorations. We utilized a blend of Q-learning and Double Q-learning methods to improve our model's performance in conjunction with the Reward Shaping technique and exploration-exploitation tactics like epsilon-greedy with decaying epsilon. We evaluated our approach on a 27x27 matrix representing the environment. In both 17x17 and 27x27 environments, Q-Learning consistently showed optimal paths with shorter distances, while having a slightly slower performance than Dijkstra's algorithm, with completion times of (0.00093 seconds versus 0.000023 seconds and 0.0097 seconds versus 0.000034 seconds); nevertheless, our assessment encompassed Q-Learning, Dijkstra, and Random-selection algorithms. Q-Learning consistently showcased excellence, while random selection yielded suboptimal routes due to its inherent randomness. Cumulative rewards highlighted Q-Learning's superiority (ranging from 2,197,570.15 to 205,823.20), reflecting its adept learning capacity. Dijkstra prioritized minimal path length (cumulative rewards ranging from 6 to 1), whereas Random-selection exhibited considerable variation (ranging from 132,449 to 11,901).</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ARAN SIRWAN ISMAIL, ZHIAR AHMED MOHAMMED, KOZHIR MUSTAFA HUSSAIN, HIWA OMER HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:15:27 +0000 DEEP LEARNING BASED CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR 5G AND BEYOND <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong><strong>As the demand for high-speed and reliable wireless communication continues to grow, 5G technology has emerged as a promising solution to meet these requirements. However, accurate channel estimation is essential for reliable and efficient data transmission in 5G and beyond. Traditional channel estimation techniques face challenges as a result of the time-varying nature of channels for wireless communication, frequency-selective fading, and interference from neighboring subcarriers. To address these challenges, deep learning models have emerged as promising solutions for channel estimation in 5G systems and beyond. Leveraging the powerful representation learning capabilities of neural networks approach have been adopted to learn the underlying channel characteristics directly from the received signals, without relying on explicit mathematical models. This approach offers several advantages, including improved estimation accuracy, reduced computational complexity, and enhanced robustness against channel variations. In this paper, a DL network for Long- Short- Term - Memory (LSTM) is utilized in channel estimation approach and compare the results with traditional approaches like Minimum- Mean- Square- Error (MMSE) and Least Squares (LS). Results demonstrate that deep learning models can achieve superior estimation accuracy, especially with low number of pilots leading to increased spectral efficiency, enhanced system capacity, and reduce the latency, even in challenging channel conditions, which is the main requirements in 5G and beyond.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ZAINAB SH. HAMMED, SIDDEEQ Y. AMEEN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:19:53 +0000 A DESIGN MODEL AND COMPARISON OF FIXED AND TRACKING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS FOR A SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSE IN ERBIL, IRAQ <p><strong>Solar power through the use of photovoltaic (PV) system is the most advanced and profitable renewable energy application; however, there are still a number of obstacles&nbsp;facing this technology, including technical, financial, and political barriers. According to meteorological data of Iraq, the annual average solar radiation is about 1800-2390 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/year, which is a considerable amount of energy if properly utilized. This study proposes a design model of PV installation system and the model is applied to three different PV systems for installation in a residential household in Erbil, Iraq. The study examines the feasibility of the plants proposed and compares the efficiency of both fixed and tracking PV systems for an off-grid PV system. The PVsyst software is used for household electricity load estimation and solar energy requirements, such as the appropriate number of panels, maximizing AC power generation, the storage capacity of the battery, and charge controller size to fulfill the required load. To calculate the annual energy generation, the design data was used in the simulations. Three scenarios were simulated; fixed panels, East-West single tracking, and dual-axis tracking systems based on the altitude and azimuth tracking angles. The study compared both the photovoltaic properties and the amount of energy generated by the installed systems. The results showed that the dual-axis tracking system is 30% and single-axis tracking system is 21% more efficient than the fixed PV system, although the latter offers an economically better alternative.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> HARDI K. ABDULLAH, PARINAZ M. ABDULKARIM Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:27:28 +0000 DESIGNING AN ENCRYPTION FUNCTION FOR CHAOTIC-BASED MODEL WITH BIFURCATION SHIFTING IN SECURITY COMMUNICATE <p><strong>A new design for a function(s) developed in the encryption stage on secret communications by shifting of the bifurcation for Quadratic map that is chaotic with one parameter. These functions approach the values for parameters on the real axis. Each new value for a chaotic map will add to the generated real values super increasing sequence toward negative infinity, and then modify the ciphertext. Bifurcation shifting computed through different functions shifting the bifurcation function such as triangular and exponential function. A modified ciphertext applied in the terms of a fuzzy chaotic based model. This encryption stage will be applied in communication models or as a part of the master-slave system. Then we provide the algorithms to recover the performance steps of the designed method. Finally, the process of numerical implementation is discussed to verify the effectiveness of the method with primary results</strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> BUSHRA HUSSIEN ALIWI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:31:17 +0000 FUTURE HUMAN ACTIVITY PREDICTION USING WAVELET AND LSTM <p><strong>Future Human Activity Prediction holds significant importance as it enables early detection and monitoring of various aspects, such as elderly care, early fall detection systems, smart-home applications, and E-health monitoring. </strong></p> <p><strong>A pioneering approach has been developed to achieve this, incorporating the Wavelet transform preprocessing technique for dimensional reduction through signal decomposition. This is followed by the implementation of a deep learning model supported by time series data, enabling real-time monitoring of physical activity.</strong></p> <p><strong>A novel method has been proposed based on wearable sensor data sources, employing LSTM and time series models, and applied with MHEALTH Dataset. This dataset comprises 12 complex activities and sensor-based devices, ensuring the privacy of patients or participants in real-life scenarios. The results demonstrate that the predicted activity of five steps with an accuracy level for the next day’s activity achieved an accuracy of 98%, surpassing the accuracy and complexity compared with state-of-the-art methods.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> MOHAMMAD KHALAF RAHIM AL-JUAIFARI, ALIH. ALI ATHARI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:36:17 +0000 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN RF BALANCED AMPLIFIER FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS <p><strong>This paper involves a design and implementation of a radio-frequency (RF) balanced amplifier for modern wireless communication systems. The proposed circuit consists of two identical microwave GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) amplifiers connected together using 3-dB hybrid couplers. The input and output matching circuits for each transistor are designed using microstrip lines to ensure low input/output voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and stable operation. The amplifier circuit is initially designed and simulated with the aid of the Keysight’s ADS software to operate in the mobile communication band from 850 to 950 MHz. The circuit has then been implemented and tested practically in the laboratory. The measured performance results show a power gain of 15 dB at the desired frequency band and a 1-dB gain compression point output RF power of +19 dBm at the center frequency of the band. </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> FIRAS M. ALI, ALI E. SHATUB, MEJWEL F. BADER Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:40:15 +0000 SECURE IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING GHM: HIDING TEXT IN PLAIN SIGHT <p><strong>Steganography is a method for concealing confidential information in digital images in a way that is imperceptible to humans. However, existing steganographic techniques are frequently vulnerable to assaults such as steganalysis, which can detect the presence of hidden data. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for securely embedding text data within images while minimizing the visual impact on the carrier image. This research paper introduces an efficient method for image steganography by leveraging the GHM</strong> <strong>GHM(Geronimo-Hardin-Massopust) multiwavelet transform and n-bit Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques. The proposed algorithm consists of three stages and for six different cases according to the altering of n- bits of the</strong> <strong>Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding algorithm. Quality and safety of the stego-images were evaluated by&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;experimental evaluations using metrics like Peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Structural Similarity Index Measure(SSIM). The results consistently demonstrated advantages of the suggested algorithm in terms of Peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR) about 24% improvement over the</strong> <strong>Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques and 17%</strong> <strong>improvement over the</strong> <strong>the DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform),also</strong> <strong>in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE),</strong> <strong>about 78% improvement over the Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques and 67% improvement over the the DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) in average. The proposed approach significantly enhanced image quality while maintaining a high level of resemblance to the original image, showcasing its efficacy in preserving the underlying structure of the cover image.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SARAH FAEQ ABDULLAH , and SHAHIR FLEYEH NAWAF Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:48:17 +0000 CHATBOT-BASED TOURIST GUIDE USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE <p><strong>The tourism industry heavily relies on effective communication, guidance, and assistance to ensure a positive experience for travelers. With the advent of technology, chatbots have emerged as a popular solution for providing aid and direction to tourists. This research paper presents a comprehensive exploration of the design and implementation of a cutting-edge chatbot tailored for tourist guidance, leveraging the power of Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). The case study focuses on Sulaimani City, wherein a robust dataset comprising 352 meticulously crafted questions and corresponding answers was curated. The developed chatbot model was then seamlessly integrated and deployed on a dedicated test website, enabling real users to interact and engage with it. To gauge the efficacy of the model, a multifaceted evaluation encompassing user satisfaction, accuracy, and response type was conducted. The results unequivocally demonstrate that the AIML-based chatbot surpassed the performance of traditional web-based tourist guides, achieving higher levels of user satisfaction. However, one notable limitation of this research is the use of a small-scale dataset, potentially affecting the chatbot's real-world performance and generalizability. This pioneering research underscores the immense potential of chatbot technology as an indispensable tool for delivering comprehensive and reliable tourist information, thereby revolutionizing the tourism industry.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ARAS AHMED ALI, KANAAN MIKAEL KAKA-KHAN, ISRAA AL-CHALABI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 06:57:08 +0000 A SECURE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM FOR IOT USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE <p><strong>In recent years, healthcare facilities have been embracing technological advancements for precise patient monitoring and record management. However, ensuring the security of healthcare information and communication technology networks has emerged as a significant challenge. The use of standard algorithms to secure unstructured data, such as electronic documents and reports existing outside organized databases, has proven to be difficult. Additionally, the existing clustering methods face efficiency issues when it comes to data transfer recovery. This paper proposes the use of an Internet of Things with Artificial Intelligence System (IoT-AIS) to address healthcare security concerns. The IoT-AIS system presents a novel approach to address security concerns in healthcare systems. By combining IoT technology and machine learning algorithms, the system offers encrypted storage, individualized user access, and efficient data transmission. The simulation analysis demonstrates the system's effectiveness, highlighting its superior performance compared to existing methods. The proposed IoT-AIS system has the potential to enhance healthcare security and contribute to the advancement of IoT applications in the healthcare domain. IoT-AIS response time is consistently low, ranging from 1.1% to 6.3%. The IoT-AIS maintains a high packet delivery rate, ranging from 1.2% to 2.9%. Delay rates for IoT-AIS range from 1.2% to 6.8%. IoT-AIS consistently achieves high transmission rates, exceeding 90%. Energy usage for IoT-AIS ranges from 14.55% to 29.11%</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> WASAN H JACOB AL masoody , ABEER ALSALAMI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:00:42 +0000 PREDICTING LONG-TERM COVID-19 SYMPTOMS USING MACHINE LEARNING: A CASE STUDY IN KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p><strong>The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced substantial challenges to individuals, communities, and healthcare systems worldwide. While initial responses primarily addressed the acute impact of the virus, emerging evidence highlights a noteworthy portion of individuals grappling with persistent symptoms even after recuperating from the acute phase. This research delves into the domain of algorithms and their application to the context of COVID-19. Specifically, we employ Machine Learning (ML) techniques to formulate a robust model for assessing the likelihood of enduring long-term COVID-19 symptoms among individuals in the recovery phase. Our investigation revolves around a comprehensive dataset drawn from 3,500 patients residing in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, all of whom had previously contracted COVID-19. Employing a combination of hospital records and direct/mobile interviews, we systematically capture information pertaining to six prevalent long-term symptoms. Rigorous preprocessing techniques are then applied to the collected data, ensuring standardization and mitigating any inherent inconsistencies or biases. To achieve our objective, we harness the capabilities of the TensorFlow and Keras libraries, leveraging a deep learning algorithm. This algorithm plays a pivotal role in predicting the probability of sustained COVID-19 symptoms among recovered patients. This endeavor demonstrates the potential of deep learning, especially when harnessed within a well-structured dataset and coupled with adept preprocessing methodologies. Consequently, our findings underscore the viability of utilizing deep learning algorithms as potent tools for forecasting the propensity of long</strong><strong>-term symptom manifestation in individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> AVEEN KAKAMEN MUSTAFA, IBRAHIM ISMAEL HAMARASH Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:04:04 +0000 A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON AUTOMATED TESTING WITH THE SOFTWARE LIFECYCLE <p><strong>The software development lifecycle depends heavily on the testing process, which is an essential part of finding issues and reviewing the quality of software. Software testing can be done in two ways: manually and automatically. With an emphasis on its primary function within the software lifecycle, the relevance of testing in general, and the advantages that come with it, this article aims to give a thorough review of automated testing. Finding time- and cost-effective methods for software testing. The research examines how automated testing makes it easier to evaluate software quality, how it saves time as compared to manual testing, and how it differs from each of them in terms of benefits and drawbacks. The process of testing software applications is simplified, customized to certain testing situations, and can be successfully carried out by using automated testing tools.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HUSSEIN MOHAMMED ALI, MAHMOOD YASHAR HAMZA, TARIK AHMED RASHID Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:08:17 +0000 CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT OF RADIO OVER FIBER SYSTEM USING VARIOUS MODULATION TECHNIQUES <p><strong>The recent decade is an era of the 5G and more communication system technology. It has a wide range of application which requires wide bandwidth and high speed of bit rate. Also, Radio frequency and optical fiber is combined in order to attain high capacity transmission at lower costs which Radio over Fiber (RoF) is being as present trend of large broadband communication. This study investigates the RoF-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system in order to enhance the capacity and performance of the system, and simulation was done by using optisystem software 14. The goal of the study was to enhance the number of channels and data transmission rate which the performance of the system was extremely reduced. Hence, different modulation techniques including Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Modulation (PM), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), and Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) were presented for the DWDM-RoF system for various sample channels including ch1, ch8, ch16, ch24, and ch32 respectively. In addition, the performance of proposed DWDM-RoF system enhanced, which optimum value of Q factor and minimum BER was attained with FM modulation techniques as a comparison with other modulation techniques including PM, FSK, and CPFSK respectively.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> LANA LAEQ IBRAHIM , SALIH MUSTAFA S. ATROSHEY Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:12:35 +0000 PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF RADIO OVER FIBER SYSTEM FOR LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION <p>&nbsp;<strong>It is well-known that the wireless communications cannot provide long distances, because the radio signals have a limited bandwidth and are susceptible to atmospheric noise and distortion. Recently, the Radio over Fiber (RoF) has become a matured technology in terms of coverage, security, and performance since it utilizes the fiber optic cable as the transmission medium. The RoF is a technology that modulates the optical signal by radio signal and transmit it across a fiber optic cable to extend the transmission length and wireless access. Currently, this technology is used to provide enhanced performance wireless systems due to its large advantages of optical fiber medium and flexibility of wireless communication. This paper provides the implementation, simulation, and enhancement of a currently existing RoF system using Optisystem 14 software to improve the length and performance of a system that is designed to transmit 2 Gbps data rate on single channel of 1300 nm wavelength using an external MZM with an input power of 10 dBm, from 5000 Km with a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 4.3 ×</strong> <strong>and Quality Factor (QF) of 12.6667 to 7000 Km with a BER of 3.34 &nbsp;×</strong> <strong>&nbsp;and QF of 15.74. In addition, these improvements are achieved through enhancing the main system parameter such as Continuous Wave Laser (CWL) and Extinction Ratio (ER) of the MZM as well as utilizing several transmission enhancement techniques such as Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF), Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) and optical amplifier (OA). As a result, the length and performance of the proposed system in term of BER and QF are improved with a range of 40 %, 51.35 %, and 24.26 % for system length, BER and QF respectively as compared to the length and performance of the previous system.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SAMAN AHMED S. SAFFAR , SALIH MUSTAFA S. ATROSHEY Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:16:17 +0000 EFFECT OF BIODIESEL ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AND EMISSIONS :A REVIEW <p><strong>Regular diesel has always been critical in transportation, industry, agriculture, and other fields related to this one. Additionally, because consistent reliance on diesel engines results in air pollution from exhaust gases and compromises environmental cleanliness, it is also not sustainable and non-renewable. Since there are no appropriate and effective alternatives that can be used as an alternative to replace it, it is necessary to search</strong> <strong>for a substitute fuel to be used in its place, which is biodiesel.</strong> <strong>In this review paper, the impact of biodiesel on engine performance and emissions is discussed. When using an alternative fuel, it must not affect engine performance. It is necessary to work to reduce emissions that are dangerous to the environment. Biodiesel is the alternative and future fuel recommended by many researchers. A decrease in brake power, a decrease in brak</strong><strong>e</strong><strong> thermal efficiency, and an increase in specific fuel consumption were observed compared to regular diesel. As for the CO, CO2, and HC exhaust emissions, there was a difference among the researchers, so some found a decrease and some found a high. This effect was observed from a decrease or increase in engine parameters through a review several researches.</strong><strong> The reason for this effect on engine performance is due to the characteristics of biodiesel fuel, as it has a low heat content, an increase in density and viscosity, and it contains a quantity of oxygen, as well as the accuracy of mixing. Despite these effects on engine performance, biodiesel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils can be used in compression-ignition internal combustion engines without the need for any engine modifications.</strong></p> ALI A. AL-JABIRI , HYDER H. BALLA , MUDHAFFAR S. AL-ZUHAIRY , NABIL K. FARHAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:28:10 +0000 ROLE OF HOT MACHINING TECHNIQUE ON MACHINABILITY ENHANCEMENT FOR HARDENED STEELS <p><strong>This paper investigates the effects of cutting factors on surface roughness of hardened steel work piece in hot machining process with heating temperature of (150 and 250) ºC, including depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The experimental side made use of the flam method. The work highlights the advantages of hot machining and how it can be used effectively on materials that are challenging to cut. The best results were obtained with the recommended cutting parameters of 90.64 m/min cutting speed, cutting feed rate of 0.64 mm/rev, and cutting depth by 1 mm at 250 <sup>o</sup>C.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MAHA SATTAR SYHOOD, KAMAL ABDULKAREEM MOHAMMED, EHSAN SABAH AL-AMEEN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:35:54 +0000 NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE ASPECT RATIO ON THE DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF PLATES <p><strong>This paper intends to study, investigate and optimize the effect of aspect ratio such as width and height on the dynamic behavior of a plate in terms of frequency and mode shapes.The research involves simulating and building plate models using ANSYS software. Modal analysis is adopted to predict the dynamic behavior of the plate. MATLAB code is developed to estimate the natural frequency values mathematically. Numerical results are compared with mathematically calculated frequency values. A total of 25 ANSYS models are built. The study has investigated up to eight dynamic modes shapes. The effects of the aspect ratios are presented in this article. Increasing the width can slightly increase the natural frequency values however increasing the thickness can significantly increase the values of the natural frequency. The range of the width values was from 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 mm. The range of thickness values was from 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm. This effect was seen to take place more in flexural (bending) modes. Flexural, Lateral, torsional, and buckling mode types were observed during the modal analysis. The rank of these modes for each model was dependent on the width and height of the plate. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><em>KEYWORDS: </em></strong><em>Plates; Dynamics; ANSYS; Modal; Frequency, vibration modes.</em></p> HAVAL ASKER Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:40:16 +0000 IMPROVING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON-EPOXY AND GLASS-EPOXY COMPOSITES BY INCORPORATING SILICA NANOPARTICLES <p><strong>Hybrid composite materials possess significant potential as engineering materials across various application sectors such as construction, automotive, marine, and aerospace. They provide designers with the ability to achieve desired properties to a considerable extent by carefully selecting both the fibers and matrix used. By incorporating different types of fibers into a common resin matrix, the material's properties can be customized and tailored accordingly. In this study, the mechanical properties of glass and carbon fiber epoxy composites that were strengthened with silica nanoparticles were looked at and compared to those of plain epoxy to figure out how well they could be used in structural applications. Regardless of the laminated material, the samples were manufactured using the vacuum bag method and heat-cured. Mechanical properties such as E<sub>1</sub>, E<sub>2</sub>, G<sub>12</sub>, and ν<sub>12</sub> were determined using the tensile test and the relevant ASTM standards to ensure accurate and reliable results. Experimental and numerical modeling will be employed to assess significant differences between the glassy epoxy and carbon epoxy composites in terms of their mechanical properties. The results of this study show that adding 2% wt of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles to composite materials improves their mechanical properties. The tensile strength of the glass composite went up by 5.74 percent, and the tensile strength of the carbon composite went up by 13.51 percent.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> *,***, THAKER S. DAWOOD, BASIM M. FADHIL, DLAIR O. RAMADAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:53:10 +0000 A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF AMMONIA BLENDING ON BURNING VELOCITY OF LPG AT INITIAL PRESSURE WITH HIGH-SPEED CAMERA <p><strong>This experiment measures premixed flame laminar speed and burning velocity for LPG, air, and ammonia.&nbsp; A centrally ignited constant volume chamber has been designed and constructed to experimentally investigate stretched flame speed (Sn), laminar burning velocity (Su), Markstein length (Lb), and ammonia and liquefied petroleum gas are mixed in a combustion chamber with a constant volume of cylindrical shape and volume (0.04899 m3), inner diameter 395 mm, and length 400 mm, the flange with a thickness of 12 mm diameter 407 mm and 570 mm both sides made of A Schlieren visualizes and analyzes transparent medium density changes. It detects slight refractive index changes caused by temperature, pressure, or density gradients. The Schlieren method employs light beams' directionality in zones with different refractive indices. Light refracts through transparent materials like air to reach denser regions. These slight changes can be seen with careful light ray manipulation. beginning pressures (100-200-300) kPa, 0.8-1.3 equivalency ratios, and 298 K. In the constant-size combustion chamber and central ignition investigation, increasing starting pressure decreased laminar flame speed, Markstein length, and burning velocity.&nbsp; Valence, 100 kPa starting pressure, and 20% fuel ammonia content were investigated. We notice that su is 27.28 cm/sec cm at valency 0.8 and 38.315 cm/sec at equivalence ratio 1. Su rises with valence and then falls. Valence increased at 1.3 equivalence 32.552 cm/sec At 20% ammonia concentration and equivalency ratios 1, su's value at 100 kPa is 34.945 cm /sec and at 200 kPa is 28.93 cm /sec, showing how starting pressure increases with pressure. Initial pressure reduces su. Practical experiments showed that ammonia reduces su. The value of su. It was 31.645 cm /sec at 20% ammonia, 200 kPa starting pressure, and 1 equivalence ratio. Same conditions, 30% ammonia, Su. 28,935 cm/sec.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JAAFAR SAMI SHABAN , SAMER. M. ABDULHALEEM Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 07:57:49 +0000 EFFECTS OF LAMINA ORIENTATION ON UNIAXIAL BUCKLING LOAD OF COMPOSITE PLATES <p><strong>The purpose of this research is to look at the buckling behavior of axially loaded, symmetrical laminated composite rectangular plates with simple support boundary conditions all around. In this work, balance equations based on Classical Plate Theory (CPT) produced from Kirchhoff assumptions are used to present formulas that determine the critical buckling load for orthotropic plates step by step. The formulas that provide the critical buckling load for thin composite plates with simple support on all four sides under a uniaxial compression force are presented. For the laminated rectangular composite plate constructed using different fiber orientations of N orthotropic layers employed in analytical solution, the required formulas are supplied.</strong></p> <p><strong>The numerical results from the ANSYS ACP Workbench analysis program and the analytical results produced with the MATLAB application were compared. Different methods employed by other studies when modifying some design components such as modulus ratio and aspect ratio(a/b) have shown that the aspect ratio is inversely proportional to the buckling. Comparisons between various plate fiber directions, layer thicknesses, plate dimensions, and composite plates were made. Higher resistance to buckling and the largest buckling load are obtained by orienting the laminate at a 90° angle.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> KAREEM ABDULGHAFOUR ABDULLA , SAFEEN YASEEN EZDEEN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 08:03:49 +0000 INFLUENCE OF ADDING DIFFERENT PARTICLES FILLERS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) MATRIX COMPOSITES <p><strong>Mechanical and electrical conductivity properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with three different parctical fillers [aluminum oxide (Al2O3), met coke ash (MCA), Nano fibrillated composite (NFC)] composites were </strong><strong>evaluated </strong><strong>with relation to the influence of the reinforcement materials content. The reinforcement (10% wt.) in the matrix. </strong><strong>Forming the sample groups P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, and </strong><strong>P6</strong><strong>. After processing, the composites were evaluated by Shore D hardness,</strong><strong> electrical conductivity</strong><strong>, and charpy impact. </strong><strong>Clear effect in the mechanical and electrical conductivity test factors was recorded depending on the particles reinforcement type and its </strong><strong>percentage added to the Polymer. No experimental difficulties were </strong><strong>demonstrated in </strong><strong>any composite, </strong><strong>and these difficulties are attributed to the phase separation that makes area possible </strong><strong>to treat</strong><strong> in</strong><strong> it was found that</strong><strong> an extruder of normal</strong><strong>.</strong> <strong>Results showed that the best improvement in hardness</strong><strong> occurs at (80% HDPE+</strong><strong>10 % Al2O3, 10% </strong><strong>met coke ash)</strong><strong>.</strong> <strong>The highest conductivity </strong><strong>occurs also at (80% HDPE+</strong><strong>10 % Al2O3, 10% </strong><strong>met coke ash)</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>The highest impact test </strong><strong>occurs at (100% HDPE</strong><strong>); this</strong><strong> means that the reinforcement did not improve the impact properties.</strong><strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MAHDI KHIDER SADAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 08:08:03 +0000 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OIL AND ISOPROPANOL FLUID BY USING TRANSESTERIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AND OPTIMIZING THE PROCESS BY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD (RSM) <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Biodiesel represents an important future source of renewable energy, and it consists of waste cooking oil. Waste cooking oil is fatty acid that needs transesterification to produce a methyl or ethyl ester. This research is a study of biodiesel production from two sources, isopropanol and waste cooking oil by using a process of transesterification. The temperature during the experiment was between 300 and 350 °C, the co-solvent(hexane) was between 0 and 8 ml, and the ratio of oil to isopropanol molar ratio was between 4 and 12. According to the findings of optimization studies. The supercritical isopropanol reaction can produce an ideal yield of 91.625% under optimal conditions (the molar ratio of isopropanol to oil is 8.413, the temperature is 326.762 °C, and the solvent is 4.984 ml). The technique was optimized by looking at the biodiesel yields from waste cooking oil and isopropanol under various circumstances. The parameters of the process for the transesterification reaction were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The models were effective in explaining the response of the variations regard the three investigated factors. The fuels quality of the produced biodiesel was compared to those required by ASTM for biodiesel.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> AHMED A. SHUNAIA , ALI A. JAZIE Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 08:17:23 +0000 AUTOMATED DETECTION OF LUNG DISEASES (COVID-19) BASED ON X-RAY IMAGES USING A DEEP LEARNING APPROACH <p><strong>COVID-19 pandemic has presented an unprecedented threat to the global public health system. The respiratory tract's epithelial cells which&nbsp;line the airways are the target of the virus's primary attack. Humans are susceptible to respiratory infections caused by it, which can have mild to severe symptoms like coughing, fever,&nbsp;and weakness. However, it has the potential to develop into other lethal diseases and has already been the cause of millions of fatalities. Thus, a precise diagnosis of these&nbsp;disorders is essential in the current healthcare system. Additionally, quicker chain breaks during early identification result in less disease burden on society. Because of&nbsp;a lack of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), early illness diagnosis is challenging. Deep learning (DL)&nbsp;models based on radiographic images could&nbsp;be used to tackle COVID-19. The study offers a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model built on a Visual Geometry Group (VGG-16) for classifying and&nbsp;identifying individuals with COVID-19 infection in X-ray chest images. The datasets included 7,245 X-ray images&nbsp;and included 2,898 images for the binary classes and 2,898 images for multi-classes for the model's training and testing. In order to maximize the accuracy of classification, the image enhancement approach was&nbsp;used to highlight important information in the image and minimize&nbsp;some secondary information. Gamma Correction, Histogram Equalization (HE),&nbsp;and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) were used as three filters for the preprocessing approaches. The suggested model performed most accurately in three classes (97.3% with the use of&nbsp;CLAHE) and the binary class (99.7% with Gamma correction). The system's classification accuracy for lung disorders is higher than that of other DL&nbsp;systems.</strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> *,**OMAR SEDQI KAREEM, KHORSHEED AL-SULAIFANIE Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 08:21:38 +0000 MOVING DIPOLE LOCALIZATION USING LINEAR LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION: A REVIEW <p><strong>In this review study we will shed some light on the equivalent source generators in electrocardiography and specially the moving dipole (MVD) and the characteristics of biomedical models used with this type of equivalent source generator. The mathematical derivation of the equations used in localizing this MVD is presented with the clarification of the reasons of inaccuracies due to; non-uniqueness, instability (ill-posedness) of the solution, and how a linear least square estimator method may improve the uniqueness of the solution. In addition, its experimental check in different inhomogeneity situations is also stated, the effect of blood mass on the moment and direction of the dipole throughout the ECG course is discussed too. The contribution and/or the progress of different groups of researchers in the clinical validation of MVD is concisely mentioned, furthermore some modern applications of the MVD are also presented. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> IMAD ABDULKAREEM DAWOD, THOMAS SCHANZE, SALIH MUSTAFA S. ATROSHEY Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 08:25:58 +0000 NATURAL FREQUENCY OF RC WALLS WITH VARIOUS SIZES AND LOCATIONS OF OPENING <p><strong>Reinforced concrete (RC) structural walls, also known as shear walls, are commonly employed as lateral force-resisting elements in structures located in areas with moderate-to-high seismic hazards. These walls significantly enhance a building's lateral strength and stiffness, enabling them to withstand heavy ground shaking. In certain cases, it may be necessary to incorporate openings in reinforced concrete shear walls to meet specific performance requirements. However, these openings can alter the force transmission mechanism, resistance, and stiffness of the wall, significantly impacting its response. This study evaluates the effect of opening size and placement location on the performance of reinforced concrete shear walls. The study quantifies the percentage change in natural frequency of RC walls when it increases or decreases. The investigation aims to identify openings that yield unfavorable outcomes and determine the optimal locations that meet the dynamic requirements of the walls more effectively efficiently. The findings reveal that the presence of openings, arranged in various configurations, can exert have both positive good and negative effects on the natural frequency of the walls. Consequently, this dynamic property can be subject to an increase of by up to 17% or a decrease of by up to 37%, depending on the arrangement of the openings. </strong></p> HOGR HASSAN , NAJMADEEN SAEED, AHMED MANGURI Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 GENERATING THE RAINFALL TIME SERIES USING ARIMA MODEL IN KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ <p><strong>Generating time series data are an important tool in operations research, as this data is often the basis of model decision-makers. In this study, the annual maximum rainfall (AMR) data from three rainfall stations (i.e., Duhok, Erbil, and Sulaymaniya) located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq have been used to build auto-regressive integrating moving average (ARIMA) models. For this reason, the rainfall data series from the years 1991 to 2021 was used. The Box-Cox transformation was used to make the rainfall time series stationary and normal. Several statistical tests were used to evaluate how well the successful ARIMA models performed. Results revealed that the most suitable model for the Duhok station was ARMA (0, 3), and for both Erbil and Sulaymaniya stations, it was the ARMA (0, 4) model. The AMR data for the following five years was predicted using these models (2022 to 2026). The study found that in a semi-arid region like the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, the ARIMA models were a useful tool for generating future rainfall.</strong></p> GAHEEN SARMA , EVAN HAJANI Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF M5P DECISION TREE MODEL IN DOWNSCALING CMIP6 CLIMATE OUTPUT FOR ERBIL PLAIN <p><strong>Downscaling the effective parameters of Global Climate Models is crucially required to project climate conditions in the future. The capability of machine learning approaches in downscaling Global Climate Models is getting interesting these days. The present study evaluates the M5p Decision Tree (DT) skill in reproducing high resolution monthly precipitation and temperature (predictands) data. To this end, the significant climate-related parameters (predictors) were derived from the General Climate Model of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) for the Erbil Plain. Initially, the effective parameters were carefully chosen for developing a downscaling model. Subsequently, multiple models were formulated to accommodate various maximum depths of decision trees (DT). Results obtained from the training process revealed a notably higher correlation between precipitation and temperature predictors in contrast to wind speed and direction. The evaluation of skill indicated enhanced accuracy in downscaling when increasing the maximum depth (MD) of M5p models up to an optimal threshold, with MD = 5 identified as the optimal depth for generating predictive DTs. Finally, it was proved that the M5p model serves as a highly effective tool for downscaling the hydroclimatic parameters in climate change studies.</strong></p> ABBAS YEGANEH-BAKHTIARY , HOSSEIN EYVAZOGHLI , SOORKEU A. ATROOSHI, SARFRAZ MUNIR, ILYAS MASIH, ANNE VAN DAM Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 24 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000