Journal of Duhok University <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> en-US <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-<span id="spans0e0" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">utilize</span>&nbsp;of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and&nbsp;<span id="spans0e1" class="sac" style="cursor: pointer; color: #0970ac; font-family: Montserrat, Arial, 'sans serif'; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">referring</span>&nbsp;to the source for individuals use.</p> <p>Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> (Editorial Coordinator) (IT Coordinator) Wed, 26 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 ECONOMIC VALUATION OF FOREST SERVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZAWITA FOREST, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p><strong>Forest is a kind of natural reserve that provides many goods and services. This work intended to value a group of environmental services (water and soil conservation, carbon sequestration, oxygen generation, nutrient cycling, and air purification) provided by two forest types that exist in Zawita area, namely pine forest and oak forest. This study depended on data collected from forest inventory, key informant interviews, secondary data, and state institutions&nbsp;and from published and unpublished sources. The economic value of only the environmental services that were evaluated for each of pine forest and oak forest in 2022 were 705,000 ID (479.28 US$) and 213,000 ID (144.61 US$)/ha/year respectively. These results present valuable information which could be considered by decision maker to develop policies that enhance the sustainability of Zawita forest</strong></p> MOSA ASAAD IBRAHIM, MOHAMMAD K. HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 06:49:29 +0000 RESPONSE POMEGRANATE(PUNICA GRANATUM CT. SALAKHAN) CUTTING OF FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH ALGA 600 AND GROWTH MEDIA <p><strong>This experiment was conducted during the growing season (2021) in Bakrajo Nursery Station/ Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Uniform and healthy pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em> L..) cv. Salakhani cutting was used. Cutting pomegranate were planted in polyethylene black plastic pots each one of the with apromixlity &nbsp;(1L) volume, filled with different growth media to investigate the effect of three seaweed extract (Alga600) concentrations (0,2 and 4 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) and three different growth media (Sand, Peat Moss and Mix), and their interactions on the rooting and shooting system characters of Pomegranate cv. Salakhani cutting. The results are summerized as follows: growth media significantly increase all shooting and rooting system characters. Peatmoss media is significantly superior to overall Mix and sand media except for chlorophyll and fresh leave weight parameters. The foliar spray with Alga 600 concentrations was non-significantly different in the most studied parameters except for shoot numbers. The interaction between foliar spray Alga 600 and Peatmoss as growth media was recorded as a significant difference in some parameters such as leaf area, number of shoots, number of leaves, number of roots and root length</strong></p> ZANIAR J. SALIH , GULALA M. A. SAEED, SAZAN F. SHARIF, ARI J. ALI Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 06:56:41 +0000 FIRST RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE OSCHEIUS TIPULAE (LAM AND WEBSTER, 1971) IN IRAQ <p><strong><em>Oscheius tipulae</em>, first described by Lam and Webster 1971, is one of the entomopathogenic, inhabiting soil nematodes and is very common in the soil of many regions of the world. <em>O. tipulae</em> was isolated from soil samples collected from olive and grapevine trees (Summel district, Duhok province, Kurdistan Region - Iraq) using galleria bait traps. Molecular identification based on ITS-rDNA gene was done to identify the samples. Using blast search, a homology of (98%) was exhibited to the <em>O. tipulae</em> which is the first record of this species in Iraq</strong></p> KAYFI SIDQI TAHER, FEYROZ RAMADAN HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 09:16:56 +0000 HETEROSIS AND SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF MAIZE BY USING PARTIAL DIALLELE <p><strong>The study was conducted at the Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok. The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of hybrids maize producing by partial diallel estimating heterosis, GCA, SCA and some genetic parameters. Eight inbred lines of maize were used to produce 12 hybrids during partial diallel cross in the spring season of 2021. Eight inbred lines and twelve hybrids were planted in the autumn season of 2021 using Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that the mean square for all genotypes was highly significant effects in all studied traits except number of ear per plant was significant. Inbred line (Un44052) was the best parental in number of ear per plant, number of rows per ear and grain yield per plant, while, the hybrid (Dkc-F-59 x Un44052) was superior in ear length, number of grains per row and 300 grain weight. The best hybrid (Dkc-F-59 x Un44052) exhibited significant positive heterosis over mid parent, best parent and local hybrid in most traits (El, NGR<sup>-1</sup> and 300 GW), and their values were, (3.08*, 12.25**, 12.08**, 6.41** and 7.96**). The heritability in broad sense was higher than the narrow sense heritability for ear length, number of ears per plant, number of rows per ear, number of grains per row 300 grain weight and grain yield per plant. This indicated that the additive gene action inheritance of these traits. The average degree of dominance is less than one for ear length, number of grain per row and grain yield per plant</strong></p> REZGAR IDREES SAEED, MOHAMMED ALI HUSSAIN Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 09:21:52 +0000 GENETIC VARIANCE, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION IN SOME TRAITS OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS <p><strong>Twelve genotypes of bread wheat, with four levels of nitrogen (0, 75, 150, 225 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). were grown in split block design with three replication in growing season (2021), correlation, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance were estimated for (days of 75% flowering, plant height, grain filling, grain yield, number of spike/plant, spike length, grain weight, flag leaf area, biomes, protein and harvest index. Highly significant and positive correlation found between grain yield and grain weight, harvest index and protein. &nbsp;While significantly 5% with plant height. Broad sense heritability was found to be low for the all studied traits followed by moderate to low values of genetic advance as percent for studied traits</strong></p> DALAL BAYAR , HAJAR. S. A. ASKANDER Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 09:26:23 +0000 KEEPING QUALITY OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT (CV. MAHDAWI) BY PACKING, WRAPPING WITH ALOE VERA AND PUTRESCINE DURING COLD STORAGE <p><strong>Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, in which local pomegranate fruits were obtained in one of the private orchards located in the village of Armasht (fifty-three kilometers from the city of Duhok). Dohuk Governorate, Kurdistan Region/Iraq, to study the effect of packing type (non-packing and packing) and dipped fruits for 7 min in different concentration of (0, 15, 30% AV gel, and 1.5 and 3 mM PUT) on fruit quality of pomegranate during (0, 2, 3 month) cold storage at 6+1℃ with 85-90% RH. The fruits packed in closed polyethylene bags were significantly superior to the non-packed fruits, in total soluble solids%, total acidity% and vitamin C, while they gave the lowest weight loss % during the cold storage period.&nbsp; As for the effect of AVgel and PUT solution results explained that dipped fruit in 30% AV gel Significantly reduce the fruit weight loss% and caused increase total soluble solids%, vitamin C, and juice density, and total acidity % compared to the other value. When storage progressed, a significant decrease was observed in TSS, titratable acidity, vitamin C and juice density in juice of all treated and untreated pomegranate fruits. The interaction of packing, storage period and dip treatments had significantly a positive effect on the quality pomegranate fruits</strong></p> AREEN M. ABBAS , SARFARAZ F. A. AL BAMARNY Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 30 Apr 2023 09:31:30 +0000 FIRST RECORD OF DACTYLONECTRIA ALCACERENSIS THAT CAUSE GRAPEVINE BLACK FOOT DISEASE IN IRAQ <p><strong>Two pathogenic isolates of the genus <em>Dactylonectria</em> associated with black foot disease of grape rootstocks (2-3 years old) were identified in Duhok province, Iraq. The disease incidence recorded 67% on plants that lead to weaken or plant failure when disease severity exceeded 51%. This disease is characterized by black or dark brown necrotic lesions at the bottom of rootstocks, sparse foliage and plant growth reduction. The molecular identification of CD8 and CD9 isolates, revealed that they were 100% identical to <em>D. alcacerensis</em>, both isolates were deposited in the national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) under accession numbers ON129803 and ON129804 respectively</strong></p> RIZGAR S. SHAREEF, WAZIR A. HASSAN Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 09 May 2023 10:25:59 +0000 CALLUS INITIATION AND PLANT ORGAN REGENERATION OF ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE L. FROM LEAVES AND NODES GROWN FROM IN VITRO SEED CULTURE <p><strong>A successful attempt was done to overcome the traditional seed germination barriers of <em>Arbutus andrachne </em>L. by applying the tissue culture technique. Seeds were successfully disinfested by NaOCl and ethyl alcohol to produce healthy cultures. Treating with GA<sub>3</sub> raised the germination rate from only 17% (control) to 45.7 % and 54.28% by adding</strong> <strong>1 mg. l<sup>-1</sup> GA<sub>3</sub> and 2.5 mg. l<sup>-1</sup> BA with and without cold pretreatment. As well as, the above GA<sub>3</sub> treatment was very beneficial in increasing the speed of seed germination. For callus induction, the culture of node explants was superior to the culture of leaf discs by reaching 100% as compared to only 66% of leaves. The cultured on WPM with both BA and TDZ respectively records the best callus induction (100%). The best-combined treatment was the culture of nodes on WPM enriched with 1.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> NAA+ 1.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> BA by producing the highest callus weight reaching 34.250 g. Finally, interesting organogenesis and regeneration were noticed on the induced callus from both leaf discs and nodes. The best shoot and root regeneration were noticed on node explants grown on WPM enriched with 1.0 mg. l<sup>-1</sup> NAA and 2.0 mg. l<sup>-1</sup> BA</strong></p> LOLAV S. SULAIMAN, RAFAIL S. TOMA Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 09 May 2023 10:31:34 +0000 IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENY ANALYSIS OF TWO NEW Fusarium SPECIES CAUSING DRY ROT ON POTATO TUBERS IN IRAQ <p><strong><em>Fusarium equiseti</em></strong><strong> and <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> are the two <em>Fusarium</em> species most frequently linked to <em>Fusarium</em> dry rot of potatoes in Duhok province, Kurdistan region, Iraq. First symptoms on the surface of the infected tuber were a brownish to black lesion. These lesions eventually become sunken as the damaged tissue dries out, forming a large hollow cavity that usually filled with visual colored fungal mycelium. <em>F. oxysporum</em> was the most pathogenic species discovered on potato tubers (Arizona cv.), and it produced lesions that were 23.86 mm deep and 21 mm wide<em>. F. equiset</em>i was less aggressive, leaving wounds measuring 12.86 mm in depth and 8.14 mm in width.<em>F. oxysporum&nbsp; </em>&nbsp;produced white to pale pinkish colories when grown on PDA in the darck at 25 °C and produced dense microconidia in false heads with short monophialides. While <em>F. equiseli</em>&nbsp; on PDA pure culture at 25 °C ,characterized with white colonies turned to beach orange in color, ,Microconidia were not formed, Many macroconidia had prominent foot cells and tapering, elongated apical cells. They were also curved, hyaline, and 2–5 septate.</strong></p> <p><strong>Maximum Parsimony analysis on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) supports the monophyletic relationship between Iraqi strains of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> (B11T2, GenBank: OP379284) and <em>Fusarium equiseti</em> (E13T4, GenBank: OP494711). With 99% maximum parsimony,<em> Fusarium oxysporum</em> was placed in the same clade as strains BMS, EPOOL, and voucher RAB1113317 (MP). While <em>Fusarium equiseti</em> has been placed in the same clade as strains 18, A577, 48, and MK7IA-FE with 95% MP.For the first time, both <em>Fusarium</em> species have been molecularly identified to be the main contributors to the dry rot that<em> Fusarium</em> causes on potato tubers in Iraq</strong></p> SHLER MOHAMMED RAMADAN , RAED ABDUL JABBAR HALEEM Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 09 May 2023 10:36:25 +0000 EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF LICORICE ROOT EXTRACT AND POTASSIUM AND THEIR INTERACTION ON VEGETATIVE GRWOTH AND YIELD OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.VAR.BOTRYTIS). HYBRID <p><strong>The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of foliar spraying of Licorice root extract and Potassium on the quality (vegetative development and yield) of Cauliflower (Organza) hybrid during the fall semester of 2021 in (Agricultural Research Center) Malta Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. The experiment was set up as a three-replication factorial experiment in a randomized complete block (R.C.B.D). The study's findings demonstrated that foliar spraying of Licorice root extract at a concentration of 14 g.l<sup>-1</sup> on Cauliflower increased the majority of the attributes investigated Spraying Potassium at a rate of 4ml.l<sup>-1</sup> led to an increase in morale in the Cauliflower plant. Additionally, when given the maximum value in relation to the features investigated in the experiment, the interaction of treatments between Licorice roots extract at a rate of 14g.l<sup>-1</sup> and Potassium at a level of 4ml.l<sup>-1</sup></strong></p> JAMEEL S. MUHAMAD SALEEM, ABDUL JEBBAR I. SAEID Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 GROWTH RESPONSE OF PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS (L.) FRANCO SEEDLING TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF GA3 AND CHELATED NANO N.P.K FERTILIZER <p><strong>As part of the ongoing efforts to optimize the application of Nanotechnology in forestry nurseries, the current study came to determine the efficiency of Nano N.P.K-fertilizer and Gibberellic acid in enhancing the growth of the slow-growing species <em>Platycladus orientalis</em> (L.) Franco seedlings. One–year old of <em>P. orientalis</em> seedlings grown in a &nbsp;greenhouse were been subjected from September 2021 to the &nbsp;end of Jun 2022 to two and four foliar sprays, four different levels of Nano-fertilizer N.P.K (20:20:20) (control, 1 g. L<sup>-1</sup>, 2 g. L<sup>-1 </sup>and 3 g. L<sup>-1</sup>) and three GA3 levels (control, 300 mg. L<sup>-1</sup> and 600 mg.L<sup>-1)</sup>. The experiment was designed according to the RCBD with 1008 seedlings arranged in three replicates with 14 seedlings in each of the 72 experimental units. Duncan's multiple-range test was used for comparing all means. for each factor individually revealed that increasing Nano N.P.K up to 3 g. L<sup>-1 </sup>and GA3 up to 300 and 600 mg.L<sup>-1 </sup>increased significantly the values of most of the studied parameters (seedling high, diameter, number of branches, total seedling dry weight, leaf chlorophyll, Protein (%), and percentage of leaf nutrients content as Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. Increasing the sprays number from two to four increased the values of the studied parameters except for the Diameter, Nitrogen, Chlorophyll, and Protein parameters. The interaction effect between four sprays, &nbsp;Nano N.P.K 3 g. L<sup>-1 </sup>and GA3 at rate 600 mg.L<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>significantly increased the values of all studied parameters except Potassium (%), where two sprays, &nbsp;of 3 g. L<sup>-1 </sup>Nano N.P.K with 600mg.L<sup>-1 </sup>&nbsp;of GA3 recorded the highest values. In general, the study revealed the positive role of the foliar application of Nano N.P.K fertilizer separately and in combination with GA3 in accelerating most growth parameters of the slow-growing <em>P. orientalis</em> ornamental shrub</strong></p> ROJEEN MOHAMED SALEEM HAJI ASSAF, HASSAN N. MUHAMED Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 07:27:10 +0000 EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MAXI-GROW AND POTASSIUM ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) UNDER PLASTIC HOUSE CONDITION <p><strong>The research was carried out in a plastic house at the Malta station &nbsp;research &nbsp;farm in Duhok, kurdistan region/ Iraq. In the autumn 2019 growing season to study the influence &nbsp;of foliar spraying by seaweed extract (Max grow) with concentrations of&nbsp; (0, 3, 6, and 9 ml.l<sup>-1</sup>) and potassium( 0, 1.5 and 3 g.l<sup>-1</sup> )on lettuce teresa on vegetative &nbsp;growth, yield &nbsp;and its chemical content in leaves. The application of seaweed extract and potassium was done 10 days after transplanting and repeated 3 time in interval 10 days. Result should that seaweed extract significantly increased (head weight, head diameter, leaf width, dry weight, N,P,K and Yields). Also, potassium gave the highest value and significantly increased head diameter, leaf width, dry weight, Ca concentration. However, the interactions between two factors significantly increased all the parameters where studied compared with control</strong></p> ABDULJEBBAR I. SAEID, SUHAILA RAFEEQ F, OMEED MOHAMMAD D, SAAD YOUSF ASWAD Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 07:36:39 +0000 HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS OF PINUS BRUTIA TEN. FROM UAV- 1" CMOS DIGITAL CAMERA POINT CLOUDS IN GEVERKE - DUHOK GOVERNORATE, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ <p><strong>In this study, purposely selected</strong> <strong>61 Pinus brutia trees in Geverke - Duhok governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq were used to measure tree height using the indirect field and the UAV-photogrammetric methods. Results depict that over the 59 observations, 68% of the indirect field measurements tree height values were higher than those obtained by UAV- photogrammetric measurements. According to the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) between the two methods, the fitted linear model explains 84.03% of the variability in tree height by field method. The correlation coefficient equals 91.67%, indicating a relatively strong direct relationship between the values of the two methods used to measure the tree heights.&nbsp; The standard error of the estimate shows the standard deviation of the residuals to be 0.361204 according to Fankhauser, K., et. al., (2018), Corte, Ana, et. al., (2020), and Guerra-H G et. al., (2016) obtained. R<sup>2</sup> values were 82%, 82%, and 81% respectively. Also, it was within the values range that, Teddy Ruslono. Et. al., (2021) found (64.4%-80.2%), which is more than the value that Vahid Nasiri, et. al., (2021) obtained (65%). The differences in R<sup>2</sup> values between the current study and the preceding studies are due to the differences in drone height, tree height, tree leaning angle, drone and sensor type, uneven and sloping terrain, GCPs setting up accuracy, automated algorithms utilized in measuring, and measuring skill</strong></p> HOZAN ABDULLAH YOUSIF, SALAH MATTI IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 07:57:18 +0000 EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYOF GIBBERELLINS, KELATEX (Ca), AND AMINOPLASMAL ON VEGETATIVE GRWOTH AND LEAF NUTRIENT OF POMEGRANATE TREES (Punica granatum L.) CV. MAHDAWI <p><strong>This study was conducted during growing season of 2022 in a private orchard of pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em> L.) cv. Mahdawi which is located at Dulib village, Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan region to evaluate the efficacy of foliar spray of, Gibberellins (GA3) Kelatex (Ca) and Aminoplasmal (A). The experiment designed as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block (RCBD) with three replications, for each treatment and each replicate was represented by one tree. </strong></p> <p><strong>There were three concentrations of Gibberellins (0,50 and 100mg. L<sup>-1</sup>); three concentration of Ca (0, 200, and 400mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) and three concentrations of Aminoplasmal (0, 100 and 200ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) in the study. The results showed that GA3 at 100mg. L<sup>-1 </sup>had a significant effect on leaf area, leaf dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf nitrogen content and leaf calcium content when compared to control. On the other hand, that Ca at 400 mg. l<sup>-1</sup> had significant effect on leaf dry weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf calcium content when compared to control, in addition to Aminoplasmal at 200 mg. L<sup>-1 </sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;had significantly affected leaf area, leaf dry weight, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, and calcium content. Furthermore, the interaction between (GA3, Ca and A) had significant effect on leaf chlorophyll, leaf calcium content, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf area at concentrations of (100, 400, and 200 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. However, the leaf dry weight was significantly affected at concentrations of (100,200 and 200 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) respectively</strong></p> DAWOD MOHAMMED ALI, AZAD AHMAD MAYI Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 08:02:23 +0000 RESPONSE YIELD OF TWO PROMISING CHICKPEA GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS LEVELS <p><strong>The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two promising chickpea genotypes at different phosphorus levels (0,23,46 and 69kgha<sup>-1</sup>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) at research station of Agricultural Research center. The experiment units were laid out in factorial experiment using randomize complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that asignificant effected the chickpea genotypes,phosphorus levels and their interaction on plant height, first podheight, number of nodules per plant ,number of main and secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant,100 seed weight and seed yield. Also the result revealed that the Flip07-245C gave the highest seed yield 449.3g at 69kg ha<sup>-1</sup>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>,while the lowest value (157.7g) at rate 0 phosphorus application was recorded by FLipo7-223, allfertilizerP<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>levels gave highest grain yield than thecontrol. All traits was correlated asignificant and positive correlated with yield with plant height (0.906), first pod height (0.877) and 0.935 with 100 seed weight. From the results of the study it was concluded that the application of 69kg ha<sup>-1</sup>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>had result better performance in all of the phosphorus levels applied and FLipo7-245Cchikpea genotyperesponded better with regard to grain yield</strong></p> MOHEMMED ALI HUSSAIN, JALAL ABDULLAH ELYAS, ESMAT MUSTAFA SADIQ, BARAVAN HUSSEIN HASAN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 08:08:31 +0000 EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DETECTION OF MOST TYPE ADULTERANT OF UHT MILK SOLDS IN THE MARKETS OF ERBIL CITY <p><strong>Developing countries are considered to be more susceptible to food adulteration, including milk to a large extent, as this is a global concern of the risks associated with it. Due to the lack of monitoring, adulterous milk can pose serious health risks leading to fatal diseases. </strong></p> <p><strong>In this study, the samples were collected from several supermarkets and minimarkets in Erbil city, the capital of the Kurdistan region of Iraq. 100 cans of UHT whole cow milk from four available market brands, for each brand 25 samples, this research reviews some of the</strong> <strong>common physicochemical properties and adulterous substances in milk and different methods for detecting these adulterous substances in terms of quality and quantity. </strong></p> <p><strong>The results of the research showed that there were highly significant differences for most of the studied physiochemical characteristics except for the percentage of fat and protein. The results showed high contrast for most of the studied characteristics, whether the contrast was negative or positive. As for the results of adulteration, all studied samples were completely free of detergents. While the results of the research showed that all samples were adulterated by adding glucose and skim milk. The COB and alcohol test results (0%,0%,0%, and 4%) were positive for the four brands (1,2,3,4), respectively. As for the percentage of adulterate for the four brands (1,2,3,4) the Formalin was (16%,16%,12%, and 12%), respectively, while the percentage of peroxide was (12%,36%,32%, and 28%), respectively, and all brand samples are completely free of sodium carbonate, except for brand 2, as the rates of this type of adulteration amounted to 16%</strong></p> NARIN MOHEMMEDAMIN NANAKALI, ASHTEE NAJMADEEN HAMEED , DERIN. OMER MUHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 09:00:27 +0000 DETECTION OF THEILERIA SPECIES AMONG IMPORTED AND LOCAL BREED FEEDLOT BULLS IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE–KURDISTAN REGION /IRAQ <p><strong>Background</strong>: <strong>Bovine theileriosis is a tick-born disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The study was aimed to detect <em>Theileria</em> sp. at genus level in blood samples of both local and imported feedlot bulls by direct Giemsa staining, ELISA, and nested polymerase chain reaction. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: A total of 250 blood samples (125 local and 125 imported feedlot bulls) were collected randomly. The samples were collected from five different districts of the Duhok Governorate in the Kurdistan region, Iraq from 1<sup>st</sup> July to 31<sup>st</sup> of October 2021. Giemsa stain and ELISA techniques were performed for all cases, while the nPCR was done for seropositive cases recognized by ELISA.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: The infection with <em>Theileria</em> parasite was 8.8% (n=22) by Giemsa staining and 11.2% (n=28) was seropositive by ELISA. The current study showed that 75% (n=21) of 28 seropositive cases by ELISA were positive by a nPCR technique. <em>Theileria</em> parasite was highest among imported breeds compared to the local breeds. The highest rate of <em>Theileria</em> parasite was in the Shekhan and the Summel districts of both imported and local breeds.&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: This study showed that the imported breeds have a higher rate of <em>Theileria</em> parasite but the overall difference was not statistically different (P=value 0.0772)</strong></p> YASEEN HAJI KHALID, FARHAD BUZO MIKAEL Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ESTIMATION YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF PROMISING CHICKPEA GENOTYPES UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CHALLENGE HERBICIDE <p>A field experiment was carried out in sandy clay loam during winter season 2020-2021 at the field of Agricultural Research Center, Duhok. Two promising chickpea genotypes (FLipo7-223C and FLipo7-245C) using in this study derived from crosses per formed at international center for Agricultural research in Dry Areas (ICARDA). Four levels of challenge herbicide use 0, 0.5, 1.5 L ha-1). The experimental units were laid out in randomize complete block design in three replicates. The results indicated that the Flip 07-245 c chickpea genotype was superior in first pod height (29.5 cm), main and secondary branch per plant (4.383 and 6.808), 100 seed weight (40.409),number of nodules per plant (84.83) ,number of pods per plant (42.67) and total seed yield (267.89),while the best challenge herbicide was 1.5 l ha-1 because the dose gave the lowest value 8.5, broad leafed weed and 2.33 for narrow leafed weed, there for the seed yield increase with the increase the rate of challenge herbicide. The seed yield correlated positive and significantly with first pod height (0.35), number of nodules per plant 0.828, number of pods per plant (0.537), number of main branchy (0.774) and secondary branches per plant (0.683), while negative significantly with number of broad leaved weed (-0.675) and plant height (-0.705)</p> MOHAMMED ALI HUSSAIN, ABDULMALIK MOHAMED RASHID, REBAR SULEIMAN NAIF, VIAN YOUNIS SULEIMAN Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 09:19:34 +0000 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING ON THE WEIGHT OF SILK GLANDS AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF MULBERRY SILKWORM (Bombyx mori) <p><strong>The study aimed to revive the Sericulture in our area after three decades of absence and to investigate the role of supplemental feeding on silk glands, larval growth, and some economic traits of cocoons of mulberry silkworms (<em>Bombyx mori</em>). Larvae of 5th instar fed on vitamin C during their 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> instars showed a significant increase in their length (6.953 ± 0.248 mm). Mature larvae fed on vitamin C showed a significant increase in their weight (3.690±0.129 g). Vitamin C was the most effective supplement for the stimulation of silk gland growth. Larvae fed on vitamin C showed a significant increase in their cocoon weight (2.158 ± 0.131 g) followed by those fed on honey (2.126 ± 0.156 g). Only cocoons fed as larvae on vitamin C showed a significant increase in their length (3.793 ± 0.125 cm). Larvae fed on vitamin C showed a significant increase in their cocoon width (1.873 ± 0.050 cm). Feeding silkworms during their 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> instars on mulberry leaves sprayed with vitamin C was more effective in stimulating larval growth, silk glands and improving economic characteristics of silk cocoons</strong></p> HELAN ABDUL WAHAB MUHAMMED , ZAHRA NAEEF AYOUB Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 18 May 2023 09:24:12 +0000 EFFECT OF SOWING DATE, BIO AND NANO FERTILIZERS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. BOTRYTIS L.) UNDER PLASTIC HOUSE CONDITIONS <p><strong>This experiment was carried out in the plastic house (500m<sup>2</sup>) at protected cultivation department in Zakho technical institute/Dohuk polytechnic university., during growing seasons (2021-2022), to investigate the effect of sowing date (15 August, 1 September &amp; 15 September), bio fertilizer (0, 2ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) &amp; nano fertilizer (0, 3, 6 &amp; 9ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) on Cauliflower (<em>Brassica</em> oleracea var. botrytis l.).,The appeared results demonstrated that both planting date on 15-Augustes and Nano fertilizer at concentration ( L<sup>-1 </sup>) had significant differences in terms of vegetative growth characters, All studied parameters in the vegetative and macro nutrient contents &nbsp;were significantly increased by the first planting date &nbsp;during the study seasons. It was also observed that treating plant with Bio fertilizer at L<sup>-1 </sup>significantly increased all investigated traits. The interactions between planting date at 15- August and Nano fertilizers (9 ml.L<sup>-1)</sup> were noticeable appeared by the improving of most detected traits. Significantly impacted most measures, whereas high concentration of Nano fertilizer and first planting date together produced the greatest overall result in all vegetative growth parameters (Number of leaf. leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>), and chlorophyll contents (SPAD). Re there was an increase grading nutrients contents, significant enhancement were showed</strong></p> HOJEEN MAJID ABDULLAH, SANAA MOHAMMAD SALEH RASHEED Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 31 May 2023 08:45:11 +0000