SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING RC MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS IN DUHOK CITY, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ
vital role in the building rehabilitation and selection of retrofitting schemes. This study attempts to examine the seismic vulnerability of existing RC buildings in Duhok city to have understand and insight about their seismic performance under the effect of expected future earthquake events. For this purpose, six existing RC buildings have been selected with different number of stories to represent the building stock inventory in the city. ETABS V.18 software has been used for modeling and analysis of the buildings. The nonlinear static (pushover) analysis is employed for determining the load-deformation (pushover) curves. In addition, the improved capacity spectrum method of FEMA 440 is performed in the evaluation of the seismic performance of the buildings under the seismic hazard specified for the city. The outcomes of the study showed that most of the buildings have behaved like weak column-strong beams and vulnerable especially at ground stories. The buildings have overall limited structural damages with cracking damages in the columns at lower stories. Thus in all buildings, the strengthening for columns at ground stories is recommended.
Abdulnaby, W. et al. (2014) “Seismotectonics of the Bitlis-Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt in Northern Iraq and Surrounding Regions from Moment Tensor Analysis,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(7), pp. 1237–1250.
ACI-318 (2011) “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11),” in American Concrete Institute.
Ahmed, S. Y. (2013) “Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Pushover Analysis,” Al-Rafidain Engineering, 21(3), pp. 28–45.
Al-jassim, S. A. B. J. and Husssain, M. A. (2018) “Pushover Analysis of G + 5 Reinforced Concrete Building in Basrah,” International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology, 11(1), pp. 53–59.
Al-shijbi, Y. et al. (2019) “Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the arabian peninsula,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, 176(4), pp. 1503–1530.
Alsinawi, S. a and Al-qasrani, Z. O. (2003) “Earthquake Hazards Considerations for Iraq,” Fourth International Conference of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, (May), pp. 0–8.
Ameer, A. S. et al. (2005) “Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Iraq using complete earthquake catalogue files,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, 162(5), pp. 951–966.
Amer, A.-N., Sobaih, M. and Adel, A. (2016) “Investigation of Effects of Capacity Spectrum Method on Performance Evaluation of Multi-Story Buildings According to the IRAQI Seismic Code Requirements,” Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 6(6), pp. 420–441.
ASCE (2000) Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA 356. Washington, D.C.
ATC-55 (2005) “Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures,” FEMA 440, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC.
ATC 40 (1996) “Seismic evolution and retrofit of concrete buildings.”
Boen, T. and Tjhin, T. N. (2016) “MDOF Effects on the Accuracy of Nonlinear Static Seismic ( Pushover ) Procedures,” ResearchGate, pp. 1–19.
Chen, W.-F. and Lui, E. M. (2006) Earthquake engineering for structural design. Boca Raton: CRC Press Taylor&Francis Group.
Computer & Structures Inc. (2018) “CSI Analysis Reference Manual.” United States of America: CSI.
Datta, T. K. (2010) Seismic analysis of structures. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
Elnashai, A. S. and Di Sarno, L. (2015) Fundamentals of earthquake engineering From source to Fragility. 2nd ed. Southern Gate: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Freeman, S. A. (1998) “the capacity spectrum method for determining the demand displacement.” Emeryville: Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
Freeman, S. A. (2004) “Review of the development of the capacity spectrum method,” ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, 41(438), pp. 1–13.
Hosseini, R. et al. (2014) “Proposed Seismotectonic Provinces for Kurdistan Region – North-Eastern,” International Journal of Current Life Sciences, 4(11), pp. 9060–9066.
Krawinkler, H. (1998) “Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation,” Enfineering Structures, 20(4–6), pp. 452–464.
Lagaros, N. D., Mitropoulou, C. C. and Papadrakakis, M. (2014) “Time history seismic analysis,” Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering, (June 2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5.
Ministry of housing and construction (2017) Iraqi Seismic Blog. Iraq.
Oguz, S. (2005) Evaluation of pushover analysis procedures for frame structures. Middle East Technical University.
Pinho, R. (2007) “Advanced Earthquake Engineering Analysis,” Advanced Earthquake Engineering Analysis, (January). doi: 10.1007/978-3-211-74214-3.
Sa’ad Al-Deen, Q. and Abdulrasool, M. A. (2017) “Database of dynamic soil properties for most Iraq soils,” American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), pp. 230–254.
Said, A. M. I. and Farman, M. S. (2018) “Re-evaluations of seismic hazard of Iraq,” Arabian Journal of Geosciences. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 11(11).
Wang, Y. J. et al. (2016) “Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for iraq,” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 27(3), pp. 325–340. doi: 10.3319/TAO.2016.05.03.01(TEM).
Yaseen, A. A., Begg, D. and Nanos, N. (2014) “Time history analysis of existing buildings in the kurdistan region of Iraq,” in First International Engineering Conference (IEC2014).
Zare, M. et al. (2017) “Preliminary report of Mw7. 3 Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran earthquake on November 12, 2017,” EMSC Report, 2017(Fig 4), pp. 1–10.
It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-utilize of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and referring to the source for individuals use.
Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.