• SUZAN MOHAMMED SALIH TAHA College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • NAJLA KATHIM ISSA College of Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • SAEED ALI MOHAMMED College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Keywords: Pepper Nigrum, Olea Europaea


Introduction: gargles are liquid topical drugs  that action  by gargling and  rinsing into mouth. Many  mouthwashes are  existences   and by prescription with a broad  level  of active components  which can be manipulated as a  helper  to aid in the multifactorial therapy of complicated  oral situation ,  consisting  of gingivitis, halitosis, and  periodontal illness. Newly ( Pepper Nigrum  , Olea Europaea )  are herbal  with   antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal influences, using plant extracts as mouthwash , in addition to being safe and inexpensive.

Aim :To measure  the effect of herbal mouthwash (Pepper Nigrum , Olea Europaea) and non-surgical periodontal therapy  in comparison with periodontal therapy alone  on oxidative stress , total antioxidant capacity , antioxidant  enzyme activities in all spit of sick person with chronic periodontitis. To investigate association amidst oxidative stress parameter, antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant capacity and  periodontal parameter

Material  and ways : A flow up study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 72 patients (39male and 33femal) aged 25-55 years from patients  attending college of dentistry ,department of periodontology from December 2020, to April  2020 .participants  were assigned into three categories  , every catigory consist of 24 patients : first group receiving non-surgical periodontal treatment NSPT and Pepper Nigrum  mouthwash, second groups receiving Olea Europaea  and NSPT  while the third group control receiving NSPT only. Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and  Plaque Index (PI) were recorded. Salivary oxidative stress eight hydroxy  deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG),salivary  Catalase(CAT) and salivary Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), were measured

Result : The concentration of salivary antioxidants (CAT)  significantly increase p-value <0.006, the periodontal parameter (CAL , PI) and oxidative stress 8-OHdG significantly decrease p-value   <0.0001  and  <0.001 respectively after two weeks following the NSPT  in group of  Pepper Nigrum, while TAOC was not changed .Moreover, for Olea Europaea  group the clinical parameters of CAL, PI showed a significant decrease  and p-value was (P<0.0001) .Also  CAT   and TAOC express  a significant increase  (P<0.0001) .In addition to oxidative stress 8-OHdG marker showed a significant decrease (p <0.0001) 

Conclusion: According to our research, Pepper Nigrum, Olea Europaea mouthwash with NSPT reduced  OS and bettering  periodontal status and elevated salivary antioxidant  . So, it is advised that Pepper Nigrum  , Olea Europaea  mouthwash   with NSPT could  be further efficient in control of inflammation in sick people with CP positive and negative correlations were found  between biochemical and clinical parameters in Pepper Nigrum group  while more positive correlation was  found in Olea Europaea  group. It indicates that periodontitis can be one of the factors for decreased antioxidant level in our body. It indicates that periodontitis can be one of the factors for decreased antioxidant level in our body



Download data is not yet available.


Burt B. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2005 ;76:1406–1409.
Page RC, Eke PI. Case definitions for use in population-based surveillance of periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2007 ;78:1387–1399.
Chaturvedi TP.Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update. Indian J Dent Res.2009 ;20:107 9.
Singh J, Kumar A, Budhiraja S, Hooda A. Ethnomedicine :Use in dental caries. Braz J Oral Sci. 2007 ;6:21
Srinivasan K. Black Pepper and its pungent principle – piperine : A review of diverse physiological effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2007; 47:735-48
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH, Farooq S, Ali M, Khan MA..Biological role of Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine . 2012 ; 2(3):S1945-53
Damanhouri Z, Ahmad A..A Review on Therapeutic Potential of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper): The King of Spices. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants. 2014 ; 3(3):161.
Lan Su., Yin, J. J., Charles, D., Zhou, K., Moore, J.,and Yu, L..Total phenolic contents, chelating capacities, and radical-scavenging properties of black 1 peppercorn, nutmeg, rosehip, cinnamon and oregano leaf. Food Chem. 2007 ;100: 990-997
Loe H ,Brown.Early-onset periodontitis in adolescents and young adult. periodontal.1991 ;62:608-616.
Loe H ,Brown.Early-onset periodontitis in adolescents and young adult. periodontal. 1991 ;62:608-616.
Silness J and Loe H..Periodontal disease in pregnancy II.Correlation between oral hygiene periodontal condition. Act odontologica scandinavica. 1964; 22(1):121-135
Kamodyová, N, Baňasová, L, Janšáková, K, Koborová, I, Tóthová, L, Stanko, P, et al.Blood contamination in saliva: impact on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Dis Markers, . 2015 ; :1–10
Zhang T, Andrukhov O, Haririan H, Müller-Kern M, Liu S, Liu Z, Rausch-Fan X. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load. Front Cell Infect Microbiol . 2016a ;6;5:97.
Aebi H..Catalase in Vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1984 ;105:121-6
Pınar Gümüş, Gülnur Emingil, Veli-Özgen Öztürk, Georgios N. Belibasakis & Nagihan Bostanci. Oxidative stress markers in saliva and periodontal disease status: modulation during pregnancy and postpartum .BMC Infect Dis . 2015 ;15, 261
Lem , M.F; Vincent1,K.P; Josue1,W.P; Jeannette1,Y;Gertrude1,M.T and Joseph,T. In Vitro Ovicidal and Larvicidal Activities of Stem Bark of Terminalia glaucescens(Combretaceae) against Haemonchus contortus. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2014 ; 5, 2859-2868
Aghayan SH , Zaker S , Shahlaei M. Evaluation the effect of concentration of ginger extract on the growth rate of Actinomyces Naslundicolony (in-vitro). Journal of Research in Dental Sciences. 2017 ;Vol. 14; No. 1
Nwozo SO, Osunmadewa DA, Oyinloye BE. Anti-fatty liver effects of oils from Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats. J Integr Med. (2014).;12(1):59–65.
Gulcin I. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper seeds. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005(56):491-499
Thiel, A.; Buskens, C.; Woehrle, T.; Etheve, S.; Schoenmakers, A.; Fehr, M.; Beilstein, P. Black pepper constituent piperine: Genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2014; 66, 350–357.
Chiara Nediani 1,* , Jessica Ruzzolini 1 , Annalisa Romani 2 and Lido Calorini. Oleuropein, a Bioactive Compound from Olea europaea L., as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Agent in Non-Communicable Diseases . Antioxidants. 2019; 8, 578
S Jayashankar1, G J Panagoda1, EA PD Amaratunga2, K Perera3, P S Rajapakse1, A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables,Ceylon Medical Journal 2011;56: 5-9
Yona One Siddhartha, Nenny Prasetyaningrum, Delvi Fitriani, Sumarno Reto Prawiro: White Pepper Extract (Piper nigrum L.) as Antibacterial Agent for Streptococcus mutans In Vitro. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; Volume 4, Issue 6 , PP 25-29.
Pavithra Vani Karsha and Bhagya Lakshmi O. Antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Indian J Nat Prod Resour, 2010; 1: 213-5
Dong Y, Huihui Z, Li C. Piperine inhibit inflammation, alveolar bone loss and collagen fibers breakdown in a rat periodontitis model. J Periodontal Res. 2015;50:758–65.
Sarvesh Kumar,1,2 Shashwat Malhotra,3 Ashok K. Prasad,3 Erik V. Van der Eycken,4 Marc E. Bracke,5 William G. Stetler-Stevenson et al. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Piper Species: A Perspective from Screening to Molecular Mechanisms. PMC Journals ;2015; 15(9): 886–893
Mittal R and Gupta RL, In vitro antioxidant activity of piperine. Methods Find Exp. Clin. Pharmacol, 2000. 22(5): p. 271–4.
Dhuley JN, Raman PH, Mujumdar AM, Naik SR. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by piperine during experimental inflammation in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1993; 31: 443–3445
Pradeep CR, Kuttan G. Effect of piperine on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha production. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2003;25:337–46. [Abstract]
Walker M. Antimicrobial attributes of olive leaf extract. Townsend letter for 8 doctors and patients. July. 1996; 156: 80-85.
Castro M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. MacMillan: London. 1990. ISBN: 0–333–55581–3.
Zarauelo A, Moynihan RM, et al. Vasodilator effect of olive leaf. Planta Med. 1991; 57(5): 417-419.
Baseman JB, Tully JG. Mycoplasms: Sophisticated remerging and burdened by their notoriety. Emerging Inf Dis. 1997; 3: 21-32.
Dewick PM.Medical Natural Product.2nd ed. John Wiley&Sons, Ltd. 2002; Pp:196-197.
Bown D. Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995. ISBN: 0–7513–020–31.
Chevalier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1996. ISBN: 9–780751–303148
Dekanski D, Ristic S, Mitrovic DM (2009b) Antioxidant effect of dry olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 2:205–211
Alirezaei M, Dezfoulian O, Neamati S, Rashidipour M, Tanideh N, Kheradmand A (2012b) Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. J Physiol Biochem 68:583–592
Alirezaei M, Jelodar G, Niknam P, Ghayemi Z, Nazifi S (2011) Betaine prevents ethanol-induced oxidative stress and reduces total homocysteine in the rat cerebellum. J Physiol Biochem 67:605–612
Alirezaei M, Kheradmand A, Heydari R, Tanideh N, Neamati S, Rashidipour M (2012c) Oleuropein protects against ethanolinduced oxidative stress and modulates sperm quality in the rat testis. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 5:205–211
Dekanski D, Janicijevic-Hudomal S, Ristic S, Radonjic NV, Petronijevic ND, Piperski V, Mitrovic DM (2009a) Attenuation of cold restraint stress-induced gastric lesions by an olive leaf extract. Gen Physiol Biophys 28:135–142
Dekanski D, Ristic S, Mitrovic DM (2009b) Antioxidant effect of dry olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 2:205–211
El-Akabawy G, El-Sherif NM. Zeaxanthin exerts protective effects on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats via modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;111:841-51.
Ebrahimi A, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A. The effect of olive leaf methanolic extract on hippocampal antioxidant biomarkers in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pathophysiology 2017;5:9-14.
Muhammed Hassan Motawea1 , Hussein Ali Abd Elmaksoud , Mohamed Gamal Elharrif , Afaf Abd Elmajeed Desoky , Asmaa Ibrahimi4 . Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Profile of Oleuropein in Experimentally Induced Ulcerative Colitis. IJMCM . 2020;Vol 9, No 3
How to Cite
Pure and Engineering Sciences