ACTIVITY OF CLOVE AND FEVERFEW CONSTITUENTS TOWARDS TOOTHACHE: IN SILICO ANSWER
Clove and Feverfew are medicinal herbs in various applications screened in vitro and in vivo. Bio- Clove activity is recognizable in toothache, antispasmodic, capscaicin agonist, and join pain medications. Eugenol (E) as mainly bio-Clove compound; also found in feverfew; is the active player in ganglionar cell through enhancement of Calcium –Chloride channel. Both Clove and Feverfew plants contain many bioactives play remarkable roles as medicinal constituents.
In dental medication, it is important to specify toxicity of any chemical material and its role on human organs through inhibition, enhancement, metabolism, absorption, and other biological processes. In this study, computational online websites:https://tox-new.charite.de/protoxII/, http://biosig.unimelb.edu.au/pkcsm/, and http://virtualtaste.charite.dewere applied to predicate many effective properties as a first try in Iraqi studies especially in dental subject.
Toxicity class and LD50 predications of Clove and Feverfew bioactives are important characters in related medications. In this paper, online predications showed that Clove and Feverfew constituents were non- fatal class with an acceptable LD50 as good indication of safety intake individually or in mixture state under controlled quantities. These and other in Silico results in this study ensure using these bioactives in oral and skin treatment.
Rhamnetin (R) and Tanetin (T) in Clove and Artecanin (AN) in Feverfew had the lowest toxicological characters. This foundation and other calculations achieved as Quantitative Structural Activity Relationship - Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity QSAR -ADMET characters confirmed non- inhibition predications of hERG I, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 towards using Clove as medicinal type with limited cautions of side effects.
Primary indications were obtained to use Feverfew bioactives with higher limited cautions compared to Clove. Also, taste predication suggests highly sour presence so oral intake is in low concentration to avoid unlikely savour.
In conclusion, these bioactives under test can be taken as a dental medication or others individually or as an extracted mixture but in limited concentration and time of repeating. Also, further in vitro and in vivo studies particularly in dental field is necessary to determine its ADMET with covering all studying factors.
S. Idowu, A. Adekoya, Igiehon O., and A. Idowu. (2021). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) spices: a review on their bioactivities, current use, and potential application in dairy product
D. Cortés- Rogjas, C. de Souza, and W. Oliverira. (2014). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 4(2), 90-96.
S. Kothiwale, V. Patwardhan, M. Gandhi, R. Sohoni, and A. Kumar. (2014). A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with available essential oil mouthrinse. J. Indian Soc. Periodontol. 18(3), 316-320.
L. Cai and C. Wu. (1996). Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J. Nat. Prod. 59, 987-990.
K. Devi, S. Nisha, R. Sakthivel, and S. Pandian. (2010). Eugenol (an essential oil of clove) acts as antibacterial agent against Salmonella typhi by distributing the cellular membrane. J. Ethnopharmacol. 130, 107-115.
G. Kamatou, I. Vermaak, and A. Vijoen (2012). Eugenol- from the remote Maluku Island to the international market place: a review of remarkable and versatile molecule. Molec. 17, 6953-6981.
G. Batiha, L Alkazmi, L. Wasef, A. Beshbishy, E. Nadwa, and E. Rashwan. (2020). Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): Traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological activities. Biomol. 10(2), 202.
A. Pareek, M. Suthar, G. Rathore, and V. Bansal. (2011). Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review. Pharmacogn Re. 5(9), 103-110.
K. Kaur, V. Hermandez, S. AlHajaj, A. Ebrahim, M. Razack, M. ElSharief, and D. Dragas. (2021). The efficacy of herbal supplements and nutraceuticals for the prevention of magraine: Can the help. Cureus 13(5), e314868.
A. McDonnell and C. Dang. (2013). Basic review of the Cytochrome P450 system. J. Adv. Pract. Oncol. 4(4), 263-268.
F. Guengerich. (2021). A history of the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the toxicity of drugs. Toxicol. Res. 37, 1-23.
M. Stipp, and A. Acco. (2021). Involment of cytochrome P450 enzymes in flammation and cancer: a review. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 87, 295-309.
A. Paniagua and P. Amariles (2017). Hepatotoxicity by drugs, pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of drugs-mechanism and risk factors. Malangu N, IntechOpen, UK.
K. Hentz (2010).Toxicology testing and evaluation, in Comprehensive Toxicology, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, USA.
R. Benigni and C. Bossa. (2011). Mechanisms of chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity: A review with implications for predicative toxicology. Chem. Rev. 111(4), 2507-2536.
O. Naodenko, D. Andrews, A. TEmkin, T. Stoiber, U. Uche, S. Evans, and S. Dray. (2021). Investigating molecular mechanism of immunotoxicity and the utility of ToxCast for immunotoxicity screening of chemicals added to food. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, 3332 (24 pages).
H. Du, B. Pan, and T. Chen. (2017). Evaluation of chemical mutagenicity using next generation sequencing: A review. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part C, 35(3), 140-158.
D. Sun, T. Zhao, T. Wang, M. Wu, and Z. Zhang. (2020). Genotoxicity assessment of triclocarban by comet and micronucleus assay and Ames test. Environ. Sci. Pollu. Res. Int. 27(7), 7430-7438.
B. David, M. Jane, and C. Marco (2019). The natural cytotoxicity receptors in health and disease. Front. Immunol. 10, 909.
It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. It publishes and facilitates the appropriate re-utilize of the published materials by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit and referring to the source for individuals use.
Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved.