• ISSA M. MOHAMMED Dept. of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region-Iraq
Keywords: Physico-chemical Components, Milk, Native Goat, Maraz Goat, Prediction Equations.


The relationship between milk components is very important to build an equation of prediction for the future measurements. Data utilized in this study were obtained from Native and Maraz does bred at private farm in Sumail district/ Duhok governorate/ Kurdistan region of Iraq. A total of 102 samples of milk were collected directly from the udder after neglecting the first few drops to determine Physico-chemical components of milk like Protein% (P%), Fat% (F%), Lactose% (L%), Solid Non-Fat (SNF%), Freezing Point (FP), PH, Specific Gravity and ZP) by different Eko milk apparatuses. The overall means of P%, F%, L%, SNF%, FP, PH, Specific Gravity and ZP for Native goat were 3.43, 3.48, 4.33, 8.51, -0.52, 6.37, 1.03 and 2.30 while these averages for Maraz Goat were 3.48, 3.54, 4.32, 8.55, -0.53, 6.32, 1.03 and 2.32, respectively. Results revealed that it may predicting SNF % from either specific gravity or FP in Native goat milk; while it can predict SNF % from both specific gravity and FP in Maraz goat milk in addition to the possibility of prediction lactose % from specific gravity only. The highest determination coefficient (R2) value for the best prediction equation in Native goat milk was found for predicting SNF % from simple linear regression (0.84); while the best one for the milk of Maraz was achieved for predicting SNF% from multiple linear regression (0.67)


Download data is not yet available.


Alkass, J.E.; and K.Y. Merkhan. (2013). Meriz goat in Kurdistan region/Iraq: A Review. Adv. j. Agric. Res. Vol 1(007), pp. 105-111.
El-Khouly, A. M. (1999). Health control of milk and its products, dar alkutub alwataniat - Benghazi, Libya.
Asif, M. and U. Sumaira (2010). A Comparative Study on the Physicochemical Parameters of Milk Samples Collected from Buffalo, Cow, Goat and Sheep Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (12): 1192-1197.
Baker, IA. (2007). Studies on milk composition of Black goat and Meriz during lactation period. J. Dohuk Univ. 10(2): 65-69.
Banda, J. W.; J. Steinbach and H. P. Zerfas (2001). Composition and yield of milk from non-dairy goats and sheep in Malawi composition, J Bunda college of Agriculture 8(1) 219.
Bhosale, S. S.; P. A. Kahate, K. Kamble, V. M. Thakare and S. G. Gubbawar (2009). Effect of lactation on physic-chemical properties of local goat milk. Veterinary World. 2 (1) 17-19.
Ciappesoni, G., J. Pribyl; M. Milerski; and V. Mares (2004). Factors affecting in goat milk yield and its composition. Cezch. Journal Animal Science (49): 465- 473.
Ciuryk, S., E. Molik; U. Kaczor; and, G. Bonczar (2004). Chemical composition of colostrum and milk of Polish Merino sheep lambing at different times. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf, 47:129-133.
Franciscis, D.G.; F. Intrieri. and B. Mincione, (1988). Milk products from buffaloes, In: Proceedings of 2nd World Buffalo Congress. New Delhi, 2(2): 641-652.
Gelasakis, A., Giannakou, R., Valergakis, G., Fortomaris, P., Kominakis, A., & Arsenos, G. (2018). Prediction of sheep milk chemical composition using milk yield, pH, electrical conductivity and refractive index. Journal of Dairy Research, 85(1), 78-82. doi:10.1017/S0022029917000772.
Hadjipanayiotou M. (1995): Composition of ewe, goat and cow milk and of colostrum of ewes and goats. Small Ruminant Research, 18, 255–262.
Harrigan, W.F. and E. M..; McCance (1987). Laboratory methods in food and dairy microbiology 7th ed. Acad.Pr. (Lond) LTD.
Helmut K.M. and G. Fiechter (2012). Physicochemical characteristics of goat's milk in Austria-Seasonal Variations and differences between six breeds. Dairy Sci & Technol. (92):167-177.
Javaid, S.B.; J.A. Gadahi; M. Khaskeli; M.B. Bhutto; S. Kumbher and. A.H. Panhawr. (2009). Physical and chemical quality of cow’s milk at tandojam Pakistan. Pakistan Vet. J., 29(1):27-31.
Nanakalei, N. H.W. (2008). General components, some physical properties, and immunoglobulins in sheep and goats' milk and blood serum. Ph.D. Thesis / College of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Mosul- Iraq.
Park, Y. W.; M. Juarez; M. Romos, and G.F.W. Haenlein (2007). Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small. Rumin. Res.,68:88-11.
Rawya, A. A. S and K. A. Ahmed (2014). Physicochemical characteristics of Damascus (Shami) Cyprus goats’ milk in different lactation periods. Journal of Nutrition 9 (12): 1192-1197.
SPSS. (2019). Statistical Package for Social Sciences, data analysis software, user's guid, Ver. 26, IBM publication.
Soryal, K.A and H.M. El Shaer (2006). Goat milk as production system and lactation stage in Egyptian Proc. Workshop on Recent Advances in Goat Product at right conditions. Cairo, April 10-(13) :165-170.
Tahir, K. N.; H. J. Hassan and B. J. Muhammad (2011). Studying the effect of maternal age and sex of the newborn on the chemical and physical composition of milk in some farm animals. Al-Kufa Journal of Medical Sciences, Al-Bitribah. Volume 2. Issue 2, p. 8-17.
How to Cite
MOHAMMED, I. M. (2022). A STUDY THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK COMPONENTS OF NATIVE AND MARAZ GOAT BREEDS. Journal of Duhok University, 25(1), 56-65. https://doi.org/10.26682/ajuod.2022.25.1.7
Agriculture and Veterinary Science