• HALA MUDHAFAR HAMID Ministry of Education, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • BELAN MOHAMMED KHALIL Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • ATHEEL NAJIB YOUSEF Dept. of Biology, College of Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, Medicago sativa, Phytotoxicity, Callus Induction


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in commercial products, and there are growing concerns about their impact onthe environment. the leakage of AgNPs in to water ecosystem could have consequential on plants through irrigation agricultural fields. Therefore, understanding some adverse effects of nanoparticles in forage crop plants is a matter of importancebecause nanoparticles are often released into soil environments. In current study, Medicago sativa, a common forage plant is used to investigate phytotoxic effect of AgNP on such plant. Preliminary results showed that higher concentrations (5, 10. 20 mg/L) of AgNP has stimulatory effect,compared to lower concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/L),on several growth parameters. Among all, 10 mg/L of AgNPs shown to have most stimulatory effect on root weight, length and lateral root number. Shoot parameters appeared to be not affected by either high and low dosage of AgNP. Low concentration of AgNP combined with plant growth regulators (PGR) highly induced callus induction in either leaf or stem explants compared to control, while higher concentrations of AgNP showed induced regeneration capability in both leaf and stem explants with no or least callus induction. AgNO3 is used as a source of silver ion having two dimensions to compare with the three-dimensional AgNP. Therefore, the details regarding effect of AgNO3 is discussed in result section of this article


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