• SIVER IBRAHIM ISMAEL Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • GHAFUR H. AHMED Dept. of Highway Engineering, Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Keywords: UHPC, Bridge, Composite Slab, Overlay, Failure, and Concrete Interface


The use of Ultra High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) for repairing damaged structures has been discovered in recent decades. Unique properties of UHPC give superior structural performance for strengthening the existing bridge or slab. The lack of data has been available in code provisions about this strengthening technology, that is why reviewing the experimental studies can guide application. This literature study presented the experimental database with its evaluation for the number of researchers to examine the effectiveness of strengthening bridges or slabs with UHPC. Also, this study discussed the basic parameters which affect the strengthening process directly, including interface preparation, size effect, characteristics of substrate NSC and characteristics of UHPC overlay. Different failure modes of composite structures were identified under flexure. In addition, based on the existing works of literature an estimate equation has been developed to predict the cracking and failure load of strengthening composite structures. The experimental studies evidenced that the UHPC can prolong the life of existing old structures and reduce the cost of maintenance. Finally, some recommendations are suggested for future work to obtain a more accurate result


Download data is not yet available.


Aaleti, S., Sritharan, S., & Abu-Hawash, A. (2013). Innovative UHPC-Normal Concrete Composite Bridge Deck. RILEM-fib-AFGC Int. Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concret, 217-224.
AASHTO. (2017). AASHTO Bridge Design Specification, 8th Ed. In. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials.
Ahmed, G. H., & Aziz, O. Q. (2015). Punching Shear Strength and Behavior of UHPC Flat Plate Slabs Paper presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology and Sustainability, Ottawa, Canada.
Aïtcin, P. C. (2016). Ultra high strength concrete. In Science and Technology of Concrete Admixtures (pp. 503-523).
Al-Madani, M. K., Al-Osta, M. A., Ahmad, S., Khalid, H. R., Al-Huri, M. J. C., & Materials, B. (2022). Interfacial bond behavior between ultra high performance concrete and normal concrete substrates. 320, 126229.
Aldred, J. M., Holland, T. C., Morgan, D. R., Roy, D. M., Bury, M. A., Hooton, R. D., . . . Jaber, T. M. J. A. A. C. I. C. F. H., MI, USA. (2006). Guide for the use of silica fume in concrete. 234.
Aziz, O. Q., & Ahmed, G. H. (2012). Mechanical properties of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC). Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology and Sustainability Issues, Prague, Czech Republic.
Bajaber, M. A., & Hakeem, I. Y. (2021). UHPC evolution, development, and utilization in construction: a review. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 10, 1058-1074. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.12.051
Bao, Y., Valipour, M., Meng, W., Khayat, K. H., & Chen, G. (2017). Distributed fiber optic sensor-enhanced detection and prediction of shrinkage-induced delamination of ultra-high-performance concrete overlay. Smart Materials and Structures, 26(8). doi:10.1088/1361-665X/aa71f4
Brühwiler, E., & Denarié, E. (2018). Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Concrete Structures Using Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Structural Engineering International, 23(4), 450-457. doi:10.2749/101686613x13627347100437
Brühwiler, E., & Shen, X. (2017). Strengthening of existing structures using R-UHPFRC: principles and conceptual design. Paper presented at the The 2nd ACF Symposium 2017–Innovations for Sustainable Concrete Infrastructures.
Buitelaar, P., Braam, R., & Kaptijn, N. (2004). Reinforced high performance concrete overlay system for rehabilitation and strengthening of orthotropic steel bridge decks. Paper presented at the Orthotropic Bridge Conference, Sacramento, USA.
Denmark, P. B. C. A. Ultra Thin Heavy Reinforced High Performance Concrete Overlays.
Du, J., Meng, W., Khayat, K. H., Bao, Y., Guo, P., Lyu, Z., . . . Wang, H. (2021). New development of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC). Composites Part B: Engineering, 224. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109220
Freeseman, K., Wang, K., & Tan, Y. (2020). Bond strength and chloride resistance of epoxy and concrete overlays on bridge decks. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 1-6. doi:10.1080/10298436.2020.1778693
Gaur, A., & Pal, A. J. I. R. J. O. E. A. (2019). Parametric Study Of Rc Deck Slab Bridge With Varying thickness: A Conceptual Review. 6, 4978-4983.
Graybeal, B., Brühwiler, E., Kim, B.-S., Toutlemonde, F., Voo, Y. L., & Zaghi, A. J. J. o. B. E. (2020). International perspective on UHPC in bridge engineering. 25(11), 04020094.
Graybeal, B., & Haber, Z. (2018). Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Overlays. U.S.Department of transportation FHWA, 40, 4-16.
Gunavathy, J., & Indumathi, G. J. B. M. E. (2011). Leadership and Organization Citizenship Behavior-A Study among Employees of a Civil Engineering Company. 4(1).
Habel, K. (2004). Structural behaviour of elements combining ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concretes (UHPFRC) and reinforced concrete. EPFL,
Haber, Z. B., Munoz, J. F., & Graybeal, B. A. (2017). Field testing of an ultra-high performance concrete overlay. Retrieved from
Huang, J., & Tang, L. Q. (2010). Mechanism of Early Cracking and Serviceability of Precast Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Slabs. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 34-35, 1369-1373. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.34-35.1369
Hussein, H. H., Walsh, K. K., Sargand, S. M., & Steinberg, E. P. (2016). Interfacial Properties of Ultrahigh-Performance Concrete and High-Strength Concrete Bridge Connections. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(5). doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001456
Lapi, M., Fernandes, H., Orlando, M., Ramos, A., & Lúcio, V. J. M. o. C. R. (2018). Performance assessment of flat slabs strengthened with a bonded reinforced-concrete overlay. 70(9), 433-451.
Larsen, I. L., & Thorstensen, R. T. (2020). The influence of steel fibres on compressive and tensile strength of ultra high performance concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 256. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119459
López-Carreño, R.-D., Carrascón, S., Aguado, A., & Pujadas, P. (2020). Mechanical Connectors to Enhance the Interfacial Debonding of Concrete Overlays. Applied Sciences, 10(11). doi:10.3390/app10113876
Luo, S. (2002). Evaluations of concrete overlays for bridge deck applications. (Master of Science in Civil Engineering), West Virginia University,
Mohsen A. Issa, P. E., M.ASCE, Alhassan, M. A., & Shabila, H. I. (2007). Low-Cycle Fatigue Testing of High-Performance Concrete Bonded Overlay–Bridge Deck Slab Systems. JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING © ASCE, 419-428. doi:10.1061/共ASCE兲1084-0702共2007兲12:4共419兲
Muñoz, C., & Ángel, M. (2012). Compatibility of ultra high performance concrete as repair material : bond characterization with concrete under different loading scenarios.
Newtson, C., & Weldon, B. (2018). Bridge Deck Overlays Using Ultra-High Performance Concrete. 8&63.
Perez, F., Bissonnette, B., Gagné, R. J. M., & structures. (2009). Parameters affecting the debonding risk of bonded overlays used on reinforced concrete slab subjected to flexural loading. 42(5), 645-662.
Sadek, H., Toledo, W., Davila, L., Al-Basha, A., Newtson, C., & Weldon, B. (2019). Shrinkage in Ultra-High Performance Concrete Overlays on Concrete Bridge Decks. MATEC Web of Conferences, 271. doi:10.1051/matecconf/201927107008
Savino, V., Lanzoni, L., Tarantino, A. M., & Viviani, M. (2020). A cohesive FE model for simulating the cracking/debonding pattern of composite NSC-HPFRC/UHPFRC members. Construction and Building Materials, 258. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119516
Shann, S. V. (2012). Application of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) as a thin-bonded overlay for concrete bridge decks. Michigan Technological University,
Sharma, R., Jang, J. G., & Bansal, P. P. (2022). A comprehensive review on effects of mineral admixtures and fibers on engineering properties of ultra-high-performance concrete,. Journal of Building Engineering, 45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103314.
Sritharan, S., & Aaleti, S. (2017). Investigation of A Suitable Shear Friction Interface Between UHPC and Normal Strength Concrete for Bridge Deck Applications. Bridge Engineering Center and Institute for Transportation Iowa State University, 10(379), 10-65.
Sritharan, S., Doiron, G., Bierwagen, D., Keierleber, B., & Abu-Hawash, A. (2018). First Application of UHPC Bridge Deck Overlay in North America. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2672(26), 40-47. doi:10.1177/0361198118755665
Tayeh, B. A., Abu Bakar, B. H., & Megat Johari, M. A. (2012). Characterization of the interfacial bond between old concrete substrate and ultra high performance fiber concrete repair composite. Materials and Structures, 46(5), 743-753. doi:10.1617/s11527-012-9931-1
Teng, L., Valipour, M., & Khayat, K. H. (2021). Design and performance of low shrinkage UHPC for thin bonded bridge deck overlay. Cement and Concrete Composites, 118. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.103953
Wibowo, H., & Sritharan, S. (2018). Use of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Overlays. Bridge Engineering Center and Institute for Transportation Iowa State University, 683, 1-48.
Wu, C., Li, J., & Su, Y. D. (2018). Development of ultra-high performance concrete against blasts: from materials to structures: Woodhead Publishing.
Xu, F., Zhou, M., Chen, J., Ruan, S. J. C., & Materials, B. (2014). Mechanical performance evaluation of polyester fiber and SBR latex compound-modified cement concrete road overlay material. 63, 142-149.
Xu, Q., Sun, Z., Wang, H., & Shen, A. J. J. o. B. E. (2009). Laboratory testing material property and FE modeling structural response of PAM-modified concrete overlay on bridges. 14(1), 26-35.
Zhang, P., Hu, R., Zou, X., Liu, Y., Li, Q., Wu, G., & Sheikh, S. A. J. C. S. (2021). Experimental study of a novel continuous FRP-UHPC hybrid beam. 261, 113329.
Zhang, Y., & Chai, Y. (2021). Numerical analysis of bridge deck rehabilitation by ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) overlay. Paper presented at the Structures.
Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Zhu, Y., Cao, J., & Shao, X. (2020). An experimental study: various influence factors affecting interfacial shear performance of UHPC-NSC. Construction and Building Materials, 236. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117480
Zhang, Y., Zhu, P., Wang, X., & Wu, J. (2020). Shear properties of the interface between ultra-high performance concrete and normal strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 248. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118455
Zhang, Y., Zhu, Y., Yeseta, M., Meng, D., Shao, X., Dang, Q., & Chen, G. (2019). Flexural behaviors and capacity prediction on damaged reinforcement concrete (RC) bridge deck strengthened by ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) layer. Construction and Building Materials, 215, 347-359. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.04.229
Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Hussein, H. H., & Chen, G. (2020). Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams or slabs using ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC): A state of the art review. Engineering Structures, 205. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.110035
Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Hussein, H. H., Liu, J., & Chen, G. (2020). Experimental study and theoretical prediction on shrinkage-induced restrained stresses in UHPC-RC composites under normal curing and steam curing. Cement and Concrete Composites, 110. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103602
Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Hussein, H. H., Qiu, M., Meng, D., Chen, G. J. S., & Engineering, I. (2022). Flexural strengthening of large-scale damaged reinforced concrete bridge slab using UHPC layer with different interface techniques. 18(6), 879-892.
How to Cite
ISMAEL, S. I., & AHMED, G. H. (2022). A REVIEW OF STRENGTH AND BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK SLABS OVERLAID WITH ULTRA HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (UHPC). Journal of Duhok University, 25(2), 13-32. https://doi.org/10.26682/sjuod.2022.25.2.2
Pure and Engineering Sciences