• VAMAN ABDULAZEEZ SAIDO Dept. of Public Health, College of Technical and medical techniques, Duhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • JINAN NORI HASAN Dept. of Public Health, College of Technical and medical techniques, Duhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Keywords: Amniotic Fluid, Amniotic Fluid Volume, Oligohydramnios, Polyhydramnios


The amniotic sac contains a protective liquid known as amniotic fluid. Two different types of amniotic fluid changes have been identified. The first is oligohydramnios, and the second is polyhydramnios. This study aimed to examine the effect of amniotic fluid changes on pregnancy outcomes and the fetus. A cross-sectional study was conducted by simple random sampling for, Four hundred fifty women from November 1st, 2021, until February28th 2022, in Duhok hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology.

The study revealed that the greatest rates of polyhydramnios were associated with gestational hypertension (22.7%) and gestational diabetes (19.3%). The most prevalent mode of delivery in all groups was cesarean section. Hypoglycemia had the greats incidence in polyhydramnios at (11.3%). There was a statistically significant association between amniotic fluid volume and baby gender, with males being more prevalent in oligohydramnios (58.7%) and polyhydramnios (57.3%) compared to normal amniotic fluid volume.

Moreover, polyhydramnios had more effects on maternal and baby poor outcomes than oligohydramnios. Thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were the most common types of chronic illnesses in polyhydramnios group compared with oligohydramnios group and normal amniotic fluid group. Apgar score, birth weight, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia, asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome were statistically significant with oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios and normal amniotic fluid volum


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed, D. T., & Hasan, S. A. (2022). The Relationship between Isolated Oligohydramnios at Term and Labor Mode. A Prospective-Observational Study. Annals of Neonatology Journal, 0.
Anis Shaker, A., Khalid, S. and Fawzi, H. (2020). ARTICLE The association of amniotic fluid index measurement and pregnancy outcome Medical Science. Medical Science, [online] 24(105), p.24. Available at:
Aref, A., & Napolitano, R. (2021). Polyhydramnios. The Global Library of Women’s Medicine, 10.
Asadi, N., Khalili, A., Zarei, Z., Azimi, A., Kasraeian, M. and Foroughinia, L. (2018). Perinatal outcome in pregnancy with polyhydramnios in comparison with normal pregnancy in department of obstetrics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, [online] 31(13), pp.1696–1702. doi:10.1080/14767058.2017.1325864.
Aviram, A., Salzer, L., Hiersch, L., Ashwal, E., Golan, G., Pardo, J., Wiznitzer, A., &Yogev, Y. (2015). Association of Isolated Polyhydramnios at or Beyond 34 Weeks of Gestation and Pregnancy Outcome. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 125(4), 825–832.
Bajracharya, N., Dangal, G., Poudel, R., Tiwari, K. D., Bharati, S., Maharjan, O., Maharjan, S., Karki, A., Pradhan, H. K., Shrestha, R., &Bhattachan, K. (2020). Comparison of Perinatal Outcomes between Borderline and Normal Amniotic Fluid Index in Term Singleton Pregnancies. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 18(4), 709–713.
Bakhsh, H., Alenizy, H., Alenazi, S., Alnasser, S., Alanazi, N., Alsowinea, M., Alharbi, L., &Alfaifi, B. (2021). Amniotic fluid disorders and the effects on prenatal outcome: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1).
Bauserman, M., Nathan, R., Lokangaka, A., McClure, E. M., Moore, J., Ishoso, D., Tshefu, A., Figueroa, L., Garces, A., Harrison, M. S., Wallace, D., Saleem, S., Mirza, W., Krebs, N., Hambidge, M., Carlo, W., Chomba, E., Miodovnik, M., Koso-Thomas, M., &Liechty, E. A. (2019). Polyhydramnios among women in a cluster-randomized trial of ultrasound during prenatal care within five low and low-middle income countries: a secondary analysis of the first look study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1).
Chetani, M., Deepika, Khajotia, S. and Kochar, S. (2017). A Clinical study of amniotic fluid index at or beyond 28 weeks of gestation and its relation to perinatal outcome. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6(8), p.3280. doi:10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20173083.
Choudhary, D.V. and Yadav, D.M.C. (2020). Foetal and Maternal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Polyhydramnios. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jun. 2022].
Crimmins, S., Mo, C., Nassar, Y., Kopelman, J. N., &Turan, O. M. (2018). Polyhydramnios or Excessive Fetal Growth Are Markers for Abnormal Perinatal Outcome in Euglycemic Pregnancies. American Journal of Perinatology, 35(2), 140–145.
Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., &Spong, C. Y. (2018). Editors. Access Medicine; McGraw-Hill Education.§ionid=138822592.
Dashe, J. S., Pressman, E. K., & Hibbard, J. U. (2018). SMFM Consult Series #46: Evaluation and management of polyhydramnios. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 219(4), B2–B8.
Depla, A. L., Breugem, C. C., van der Horst, C. M. A. M., de Heus, R., van den Boogaard, M.-J. H., Maas, S. M., Pajkrt, E., &Bekker, M. N. (2017). Polyhydramnios in isolated oral cleft pregnancies: incidence and outcome in a retrospective study. Prenatal Diagnosis, 37(2), 162–167.
Dulay, A. (2020). Polyhydramnios - Gynecology and Obstetrics. [online] MSD Manual Professional Edition. Available at:
Figueroa, L., McClure, E. M., Swanson, J., Nathan, R., Garces, A. L., Moore, J. L., Krebs, N. F., Hambidge, K. M., Bauserman, M., Lokangaka, A., Tshefu, A., Mirza, W., Saleem, S., Naqvi, F., Carlo, W. A., Chomba, E., Liechty, E. A., Esamai, F., Swanson, D., & Bose, C. L. (2020). Oligohydramnios: a prospective study of fetal, neonatal and maternal outcomes in low-middle income countries. Reproductive Health, 17(1).
Fitzsimmons, E. D., & Bajaj, T. (2022). Embryology, Amniotic Fluid. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.
Han, C. S., & Platt, L. D. (2018, January 1). 125 - Fetal Biophysical Profile (J. A. Copel, M. E. D’Alton, H. Feltovich, E. Gratacós, D. Krakow, A. O. Odibo, L. D. Platt, & B. Tutschek, Eds.). ScienceDirect; Elsevier.
Hesson, A., &Langen, E. (2018). Outcomes in oligohydramnios: the role of etiology in predicting pulmonary morbidity/mortality. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 46(8), 948–950.
Hodyl, N. A., Stark, M. J., Scheil, W., Grzeskowiak, L. E., & Clifton, V. L. (2014). Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. European Respiratory Journal, 43(3), 704–716.
Hou, L., Wang, X., Hellerstein, S., Zou, L., Ruan, Y., & Zhang, W. (2018). Delivery mode and perinatal outcomes after diagnosis of oligohydramnios at term in China. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 33(14), 2408–2414.
Hughes, D. S., Magann, E. F., Whittington, J. R., Wendel, M. P., Sandlin, A. T., &Ounpraseuth, S. T. (2019). Accuracy of the Ultrasound Estimate of the Amniotic Fluid Volume (Amniotic Fluid Index and Single Deepest Pocket) to Identify Actual Low, Normal, and High Amniotic Fluid Volumes as Determined by Quantile Regression. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 39(2), 373–378.
Ibrahim, H. and Zween, Z. (2020). Oligohydramnios and fetal outcome in term pregnancy. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences, 24(3), pp.347–353. doi:10.15218/zjms.2020.041.
Kapoor, D. A., Taralekar, D. V., &Mehendale, S. (2018). Association of amniotic fluid index with neonatal outcomes at a tertiary level hospital in Pune, India. Undefined, 8.
Keilman, C., & Shanks, A. L. (2021). Oligohydramnios. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Khan, S., & Donnelly, J. (2017). Outcome of pregnancy in women diagnosed with idiopathic polyhydramnios. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 57(1), 57–62.
Lord, M., Marino, S., & Kole, M. (2022). Amniotic Fluid Index. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.
Mangels, R., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Homeyer, M., Mrazek‐Pugh, B., Hintz, S. R., & Hudgins, L. (2020). RASopathies : A significant cause of polyhydramnios? Prenatal Diagnosis, 41(3), 362–367.
Matěcha, J., &Nováčková, M. (2020). Idiopathic polyhydramnios. CeskaGynekologie, 85(6), 417–421.
Majeed, H. and Shamdeen, M. (2019). Fetal and maternal outcomes in oligohydramnios pregnancy (37–40 weeks of gestation) at labor. Medical Journal of Babylon, 16(3), p.248. doi:10.4103/mjbl.mjbl_36_19.
Minwuye, T. (2019). Severe Oligohydramnios at Term Pregnancy and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Admitted from June 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017 at Gondar University Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Lupine Online Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(5), 315–320.
Mousavi, A. S., Hashemi, N., Kashanian, M., Sheikhansari, N., Bordbar, A., &Parashi, S. (2018). Comparison between maternal and neonatal outcome of PPROM in the cases of amniotic fluid index (AFI) of more and less than 5 cm. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 38(5), 611–615.
Nancy, B., Robina, M., Surender, K., Reema, K., & Manjula, S. (2019). A Study on Perinatal Outcome in Term Oligohydramnios. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), 18(4), 83–90. 10.9790/0853-1804058390.
Nasir, A. H. A. A., & Abdul-Jabbar, Z. H. (2020). Risk Assessment Among Pregnant Attending Antenatal Care in Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Nasiriya City at 2018. University of Thi-Qar Journal of Medicine, 20(2), 1–11.
Noori, B. and Saeed, A. (2021). Indications of Labor Induction at Delivery Room of Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City. Erbil Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 4(1), pp.41–19. doi:10.15218/ejnm.2021.05.
Pachuau, J., Singh, L., Singh, S., Jeevana, C., &Rentta, M. (2021). Clinical and Ultrasonographical Evaluation of Polyhydramnios., 20(3), 47–49. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 20, Issue 3 Ser.6 (March. 2021), PP 47-49 DOI: 10.9790/0853-2003064749.
Panda, S., Jayalakshmi, M., Shashi Kumari, G., Mahalakshmi, G., Srujan, Y., & Anusha, V. (2017). Oligoamnios and Perinatal Outcome. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India, 67(2), 104–108.
Qualtrics. (2018). How to Determine the Correct Survey Sample Size. Qualtrics.

Rathod, S., &Samal, S. (2017). Evaluation of Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Induction in Borderline Oligohydramnios at Term. JOURNAL of CLINICAL and DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH, 11(9).
Rochelson, B., Stork, L., Augustine, S., Greenberg, M., Sison, C., Vohra, N., & Blitz, M. (2018). Effect of Maternal Body Mass Index and Amniotic Fluid Index on the Accuracy of Sonographic Estimation of Fetal Weight in Late Gestation. American Journal of Perinatology, 35(13), 1235–1240.
Sathyapriya, K., Sonal, A., Venkateswaramurthy, N., &Sambathkumar, R. (2019). Research on Prevalence of Oligohydramnios in Third Trimester of Pregnancy and Its Outcome. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 9(4), 7–13.
Saxena, R., Patel, B., & Verma, A. (2020). Oligohydramnios and its perinatal outcome. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 9(12), 4965–4969.
Sharif, N. and Qasim, A. (2021). Perinatal outcome in pregnant females at term having low amniotic fluid index. The Professional Medical Journal, 28(09), pp.1358–1364. doi:10.29309/tpmj/2021.28.09.6760.
Sonkhya, P., Gupta, N., & Mittal, P. (2017). Pregnancy Outcomes of Oligohydramnios at Term diagnosed by Ultra Sonography (USG): A Case Control study. International Multispecialty Journal of Health (IMJH), 3(2).
Teka, H., Gidey, H., Gebreezgabher, T., Yemane, A., Ebuy, H., Berhe, Y., & Abate, E. (2020). Determinants of Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Oligohydramnios After 37+0 Weeks of Gestation in Mekelle Public Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia. Research Square.
Tripathi, M., Gurung, T., Ghale, T., Gurung, B., Pandit, C. and Shrestha, R. (2019). Pregnancy Outcome in Women Having Oligohydramnios in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal, 12(1), pp.1–4. doi:10.3126/jgmcn.v12i1.22599.
Uguz, F., Gezginc, K., Korucu, D. G., Sayal, B., & Turgut, K. (2016). Are Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Associated With Oligohydramnios in Pregnant Women? A Case-Control Study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 53(4), 275–279.
Vanda, R., Bazrafkan, M., Rouhani, M., &Bazarganipour, F. (2022). Comparing pregnancy, childbirth, and neonatal outcomes in women with idiopathic polyhydramnios: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 22(1).
Whittington, J. R., &Magann, P. E. (2021). Amniotic Fluid: Physiology and Assessment. The Global Library of Women’s Medicine, 4.
Yefet, E., & Daniel-Spiegel, E. (2016). Outcomes From Polyhydramnios With Normal Ultrasound. PEDIATRICS, 137(2), e20151948–e20151948.
Yenigul, N. N. (2019). The Effects of Isolated Oligohydramnios in Term Pregnancies on Labor, Delivery Mode, and Neonatal Outcomes. Eurasian Journal of Medical Investigation, 3(1).
How to Cite
Pure and Engineering Sciences