• MAND KAMAL ASKAR *Highways and Bridges Engineering, Technical College of Engineering, Duhok Polytechnic University (DPU), Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • YAMAN AL-KAMAKI **Dept of Civil Engineering., College of Engineering, University of Duhok (UoD), Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • RAZAQ FERHADI *** College of Engineering, The American University of Kurdistan (AUK), Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • HISHAM KHALID MAJEED **** Duhok Municipality, Directorate General of Municipalities, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq & Lazgin Company, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Cracks; Causes of cracking; Prevention of cracking; measurement of cracks; Concrete.


Cracks are the most common problem encountered in any type of building. Hence, understanding the underlying cause, implementing preventive measures during construction, and employing appropriate treatment methods are of utmost importance. A variety of structural and non-structural elements of the building begin to show fractures due to mistakes made during construction and other inevitable causes. Therefore, it is crucial to spot these cracks quickly and take preventive measures. Although cracks in concrete cannot be avoided, they can be managed by utilizing the right materials, employing proper building methods, complying with the applicable codes and standards, and following intact design criteria. Structural fractures pose a safety risk to a particular structure due to their underlying causes, which may be attributed to deficient design, subpar construction, or excessive loading. Non-structural cracks, on the other hand, are those that result from underlying causes related to moisture or thermal fluctuations, creep, elastic deformation, chemical reaction, or issues with the foundation soil, such as moving, settling, or uncontrolled vegetation. The primary cause of non-structural cracks is internally produced stress in building materials, which typically does not directly cause structural weakness. This research illustrates various types of cracks along with their causes, prevention measures, and treatment methods.





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