• *,***, THAKER S. DAWOOD *** College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region- Iraq
  • BASIM M. FADHIL ** Erbil Technology College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region- Iraq
  • DLAIR O. RAMADAN * Erbil Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region- Iraq
Keywords: Glass fiber-reinforced polymer; Mechanical properties; Hybrid nano-composites; Carbon fiber.


Hybrid composite materials possess significant potential as engineering materials across various application sectors such as construction, automotive, marine, and aerospace. They provide designers with the ability to achieve desired properties to a considerable extent by carefully selecting both the fibers and matrix used. By incorporating different types of fibers into a common resin matrix, the material's properties can be customized and tailored accordingly. In this study, the mechanical properties of glass and carbon fiber epoxy composites that were strengthened with silica nanoparticles were looked at and compared to those of plain epoxy to figure out how well they could be used in structural applications. Regardless of the laminated material, the samples were manufactured using the vacuum bag method and heat-cured. Mechanical properties such as E1, E2, G12, and ν12 were determined using the tensile test and the relevant ASTM standards to ensure accurate and reliable results. Experimental and numerical modeling will be employed to assess significant differences between the glassy epoxy and carbon epoxy composites in terms of their mechanical properties. The results of this study show that adding 2% wt of SiO2 nanoparticles to composite materials improves their mechanical properties. The tensile strength of the glass composite went up by 5.74 percent, and the tensile strength of the carbon composite went up by 13.51 percent.




Download data is not yet available.


Agag, T., Koga, T., & Takeichi, T. (2001). Studies on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyimide-Clay Nanocomposites. Polymer, 42(8), 3399–3408.
Aktaş, M., Karakuzu, R., & Arman, Y. (2009). Compression-After Impact Behavior of Laminated Composite Plates Subjected to Low Velocity Impact in High Temperatures. Composite Structures, 89(1), 77–82.
Aljeboree, A. M., Mahdi, A. B., Albahadly, W. K. Y., Izzat, S. E., Al Kubaisy, M. M. R., Abid, F. M., Aldulaimi, A. K. O., & Alkaim, A. F. (2022). Enhancement of Adsorption of Paracetamol Drug on Carbon Nanotubes Concerning Wastewater Treatment. Engineered Science, 20, 321–329.
ASTM International. (2020). Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials. In Designation: D3039/D3039M − 17 Standard (pp. 1–13).
Balsure, S., More, V., Kadam, S., Kadam, R., & Kadam, A. (2023). Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Optical Properties of Co Doped Cr-Zn Oxide Nanoparticles for Spintronic Devices. Engineered Science, 21, 1–9.
Brunner, A. J., Necola, A., Rees, M., Gasser, P., Kornmann, X., Thomann, R., & Barbezat, M. (2006). The Influence of Silicate-Based Nano-Filler on the Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Resin. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 73(16), 2336–2345.
Burmistrov, I. N., Mostovoi, A. S., Shatrova, N. V., Panova, L. G., Kuznetsov, D. V., Gorokhovskii, A. V., & Il’Inykh, I. A. (2013). Influence of Surface Modification of Potassium Polytitanates on the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Composites Thereof. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 86(5), 765–771.
Caminero, M. A., Rodríguez, G. P., Chacón, J. M., & García-Moreno, I. (2019). Tensile and Flexural Damage Response of Symmetric Angle-Ply Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Laminates: Non-Linear Response and Effects of Thickness and Ply-Stacking Sequence. In Polymer Composites (Vol. 40, Issue 9, pp. 3678–3690).
Crosby, A. J., & Lee, J. Y. (2007). Polymer Nanocomposites: The “Nano” Effect on Mechanical Properties. Polymer Reviews, 47(2), 217–229.
Demirci, M. T., Tarakçıoğlu, N., Avcı, A., Akdemir, A., & Demirci, İ. (2017). Fracture Toughness (Mode I) Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticle Filled Basalt/Epoxy Filament Wound Composite Ring with Split-Disk Test Method. Composites Part B: Engineering, 119(Mode I), 114–124.
Han, J. T., & Cho, K. (2006). Nanoparticle-Induced Enhancement in Fracture Toughness of Highly Loaded Epoxy Composites Over a Wide Temperature Range. Journal of Materials Science, 41(13), 4239–4245.
Hancox, N. L. (1996). Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. In Materials & Design (Vol. 17, Issue 2).
Hosur, M. V., Chowdhury, F., & Jeelani, S. (2007). Low-Velocity Impact Response and Ultrasonic NDE of Woven Carbon/Epoxy-Nano clay Nanocomposites. Journal of Composite Materials, 41(18), 2195–2212.
Landowski, M., Budzik, M., & Imielinska, K. (2014). Water Absorption and Blistering of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Marine Laminates with Nanoparticle-Modified Coatings. Journal of Composite Materials, 48(23), 2805–2813.
Levy, A., & Papazian, J. M. (1990). Tensile Properties of Short Fiber-Reinforced SiC/Al Composites: Part II. Finite-Element Analysis. Metallurgical Transactions A, 21(1), 411–420.
Mallick, P. K. (1993). Fiber-Reinforced Composites : Materials , Manufacturing , and Design.
Mostovoy, A., Shcherbakov, A., Yakovlev, A., Arzamastsev, S., & Lopukhova, M. (2022). Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Functionalized Graphene Oxide. Polymers, 14(2).
Moustafa, K., Aldajah, S., Hayek, S., Alomari, A., & Haik, Y. (2014). Role of Nanofillers in Low Speed Impact Enhancement of Composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 48(14), 1735–1744.
Nazarenko, O. B., Melnikova, T. V., & Visakh, P. M. (2016). Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminum Nano powders and Boric Acid. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 671(1).
Oun, A., Manalo, A., Alajarmeh, O., Abousnina, R., & Gerdes, A. (2022). Influence of Elevated Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Flax‐Fiber–Epoxy Composites Incorporating Graphene. Polymers, 14(9).
Reis, P. N. B., Ferreira, J. A. M., Santos, P., Richardson, M. O. W., & Santos, J. B. (2012). Impact Response of Kevlar Composites with Filled Epoxy Matrix. Composite Structures, 94(12), 3520–3528.
Reis, P. N. B., Ferreira, J. A. M., Zhang, Z. Y., Benameur, T., & Richardson, M. O. W. (2014). Impact Strength of Composites with Nano-Enhanced Resin after Fire Exposure. Composites Part B: Engineering, 56, 290–295.
Reis, P. N. B., ZhangFerreira, J. A. M., Zhang, Z. Y., Benameur, T., & Richardson, M. O. W. (2013). Impact Response of Kevlar Composites with Nanoclay Enhanced Epoxy Matrix. Composites Part B: Engineering, 46, 7–14.
Tjong, S. C. (2006). Structural and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites. Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, 53(3–4), 73–197.
Tzetzis, D., Mansour, G., Tsiafis, I., & Pavlidou, E. (2013). Nanoindentation Measurements of Fumed Silica Epoxy Reinforced Nanocomposites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 32(3), 163–173.
Wang, X., Wang, L., Su, Q., & Zheng, J. (2013). Use of Unmodified SiO2 as Nanofiller to Improve Mechanical Properties of Polymer-Based Nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 89, 52–60.
Yuan, B., Tan, B., Hu, Y., Shaw, J., & Hu, X. (2019). Improving Impact Resistance and Residual Compressive Strength of Carbon Fiber Composites Using Un-Bonded Non-Woven Short Aramid Fiber Veil. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 121(April), 439–448.
How to Cite