STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (IRON, ZINC AND COPPER) IN SERA OF PREGNANT WOMEN AT THIRD TRIMESTER

  • SHELAN HAWWAL RASOOL College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • AHID NAJIMELDDIN ABDULLAH College of Dentistry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • QAYS LAZGIN BARANY College of Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • RAED SALIM AL-NAEMY College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Keywords: Trace elements:, Iron deficiency anemia and Pregnancy:

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a biological phenomenon associated with dynamic changes in physical, mental and biochemical alterations in body. Maintaining the appropriate micronutrient levels is considered essential for developing the normal pregnancy otherwise there would be adverse pregnancy outcomes. Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in all trimesters of pregnancy where it is regarded as one of the most common causes of maternal death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum level of iron, zinc and copper at the third trimester of pregnancy and to ascertain the association between trace elements and hematological parameters.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in January - August 2018.  Study participants were divided in to two groups and each group consists of 40 pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy. The study group consists of women who did not take iron and folic acid supplements whereas the control group represented pregnant women who took iron and folic acid supplements (400 µg/day). Both zinc and copper were assayed using atomic absorption method whereas iron was measured manually using spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis for all study variables was done using SPSS version 18. All variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and p values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant.

Results: Mean serum iron level was statistically significantly lower in study subjects compared with controls (p = 0.01). Moreover, mean serum zinc concentration displayed a highly statistically significantly lower values in study subjects compared to controls (p < 0.0001). However, mean serum copper level was slightly lower in study group but did not show any statistically significant differences. No significant correlation seen between iron with zinc and copper and iron with hematological variables

Conclusion: Pregnant women who did not take iron and folic acid supplementation developed maternal anemia as well as hypozincemia particularly in the third trimester. Therefore, sufficient intake of iron and zinc supplementation and trace metals rich diet during pregnancy is recommended to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1- Abdul Hussein, K. Level of serum copper and zinc in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2005; 47: 183-188.
2- McMahon LP. Iron deficiency in pregnancy. Obstet Med. 2010; 3(1):17-24.
3- Upadhaya, C.; Misha, S.; Ajmera, P. and Sharma, P. Serum iron, copper and zinc status in maternal and cord blood. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2004; 19: 48-52.
4- Gomber S, Agarwal KN, Mahajan C, Agarwal N. Impact of daily versus weekly hematinic supplementation on anemia in pregnant women. Indian Pediatr. 2002; 39:339–46.
5- Lelic M, Bogdanovic G, Ramic S, Brkicevic E. Influence of maternal anemia during pregnancy on placenta and newborns. Med Arch. 2014; 68 (3):184-7.
6- Bondevik GT, Lie RT, Ulsteim M, Kvale G. Maternal hematological status and risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery in Nepal. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand. 2001; 80:402–8.
7- K Jagadish Kumar, N Asha, D Srinivasa Murthy, MS Sujatha and VG Manjunath. Maternal Anemia in Various Trimesters and its Effect on Newborn Weight and Maturity: An Observational Study. Int J Prev Med. 2013; 4(2): 193–199.
8- Al-Sarrag, N.F, Rajab M.A and Altai W.F. Estimation of ceruloplasmin activity, and copper, iron levels in sera of normal pregnant. Ibn-Al-Haitham J Pure Appl Sci. 2007; 20: 1-10.
9- F REELANDG, RAVES J, H, S ANJEEVI N, L EE J. Global perspectives on trace element requirements. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015; 31: 135-141.
10- Amani F.H. Noureldeen, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Yasmin S.Z. Al-solami. Maternal Status of Trace Elements in Normal Pregnancy and in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research. 2018; 8 (1) 1-9.
11- Pathak, P. and Kapil, U. Role of trace elements zinc, copper and magnesium during pregnancy and its outcome. Indian J Pediatric. 2004; 71:1003-1005.
12- Dash S, Nanda SS and Behera AK. Pulmonary functions in pregnancy complicated with anemia. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014; 2:1431-7.
13- Shankar H, Kumar N, Sandhir R, Mittal S, Adhikari T, Kumar A and Rao DN. Micronutrients Drift During Daily and Weekly Iron Supplementation in Non-anaemic and Anaemic Pregnancy. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2017; 32(4):473-479.
14- Priyadarsini Samanta, Laxman Kumar Senapati and Bhaskar Thakur. Relationship of dynamic lung function parameters in pregnant women with different degrees of anemia: A cross-sectional study in Odisha. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(8): 1166-1170.
15- Bothwell, T.H. Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72:257S–264.
16- HANACHI P, NORROZI M and MOOSAVI RM. The correlation of prenatal zinc concentration and deficiency with anthropometric factors. J Family Reprod Health. 2014; 8: 21-26.
17- Haider Batool A, Olofin Ibironke, Wang Molin, Spiegelman Donna, Ezzati Majid, Fawzi Wafaie W et al. Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013; 346 :3443.
18- GÓMEZ T, BEQUER L, MOLLINEDA A, GONZÁLEZ O, DIAZ M, FERNÁNDEZ D. Serum zinc levels of cord blood: Relation to birth weight and gestational period. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015; 30: 180-183.
19- Ashraf M, Salam A, Nasarulla M, Khurshid R and Ahmed Z. Maternal serum zinc concentrations. Ann Punj Med Col. 2007; 1 (1): 24-27.
20- Genova, M.P, Atanasova, B, Todourova-Ananieva, K. and Tzatchev, k. Plasma and intracellular erythrocyte zinc levels during pregnancy in Bulgarian females with and without gestational diabetes. Inter J Adv Res. 2014; 2: 661-667.
21- Jinhao, LiuHui, YangHua, ShiChuan, ShenWenjie, ZhouQingkai, DaiYongmei and Jiang. Blood Copper, Zinc, Calcium, and Magnesium Levels During Different Duration of Pregnancy in Chinese. Biological Trace Element Research. 2010; 135 (3): 31–37.
22- Gambling, L.; Dunford, S. and McArdle, H.J. Iron deficiency in the pregnant rat has differential effects on maternal and fetal copper levels. J Nutr Biochem. 2004; 15: 366–372.
23- Al Saleh E, Nandakumaran M and Al Harmi J. Maternal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in obese pregnant women in late gestation. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006; 113 (2):113–123
24- Izquierdo-Alvarez, S.; Castanon, S.G.; Ruata M.L.; Aragues, E.F.; Terraz, P.B.; Irazabal, Y.G.; Gonzalez, E.G. and Rodriguez, B.G. Updating of normal levels of copper, zinc and selenium in serum of pregnant women. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007; 21: 49-52.
Published
2019-10-29
How to Cite
HAWWAL RASOOL, S., ABDULLAH, A. N., LAZGIN BARANY, Q., & SALIM AL-NAEMY, R. (2019). STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (IRON, ZINC AND COPPER) IN SERA OF PREGNANT WOMEN AT THIRD TRIMESTER. Journal of Duhok University, 22(1), 39-44. https://doi.org/10.26682/sjuod.2019.22.1.6
Section
Pure and Engineering Sciences