• Ghariba Y.Haji
  • Abdulsattar H.Sulaiman
Keywords: Bougainvillea, Pigment, Extraction, Food Industry, Natural Colorants.


Bougainvillea glabra violet bract flower was selected to explore natural pigment. Various solvent combinations were used to extract the pigments from the flowers. UV–Vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the suitable solvent and the optimum portion ratio for pigment extraction by maceration. The results of mass of floral bract to (50%) ethanol solvent portion ratio in a constant volume (20 ml) was found to be (0.1 gm /20 ml), measured at λmax 548 nm and the maceration extraction time for pigment extraction from violet bracts was 72 h.

Different neutral, basic and acidic organic solvent solutions (ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 2- butanol, chloroform and acetone), shows different result of extraction for the pigments. The combination 1:1 methanol: water ratio was found to be a suitable combination solvent for pigment extraction and distilled water solvent give the best results to protect the pigment violet color for Bougainvillea g. bracts from conversion in the period for 15 days


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How to Cite
Y.Haji, G., & H.Sulaiman, A. (2020). “RAINFALL EROSIVITY MAPPING AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDE SITES IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE”. Journal of Duhok University, 22(2), 218-228. https://doi.org/10.26682/ajuod.2019.22.2.21
Agriculture and Veterinary Science