Keywords: Fecal Sludge management, Shit flow diagrams, (on-site) sanitation, Duhok city, IDPs and Refugees camp


This study aims to assess the condition of fecal sludge management (FSM) services of non-sewered
(on-site) sanitation systems in Duhok city and Chamishko, Kaparto2, Sharia IDPs and Domiz1 refugees
camps. Duhok city was selected as a case study while other locations were selected for their formally
temporal status besides their difference in location, size, and level of existing proper service delivery. Shit
flow diagrams (SFD) for on‐site sanitation systems of interested areas were produced to identify the
service outcomes and where improvements are needed to eliminate the negative impacts of FS on both
public health and the environment. The study revealed that sanitation delivery services were at very good
level in Kabartu2 camp as it has a wastewater treatment plant WWTP of 900 m3
/day capacity and in
Sharia camp as it has a (Package Sewage) treatment plant of 1760 m3
/day capacity. In Domiz1 camp, the
sanitation services were at poor level even though 25% of its generated wastewater transports to
Kabartu2 WWTP for treatment. Similarly, the sanitation service level in both Duhok city and Chamishko
camp were poor and very poor respectively where urgent improvements are needed. Recommendations
were proposed to the decision makers of local authority to take proper actions.


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How to Cite
KOCHARY, S. A. (2021). FECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT OF DUHOK CITY AND 4 IDPS AND REFUGEES CAMPS. Journal of Duhok University, 23(2), 309-320. Retrieved from https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/936