REFLECTIONS OF HALABJAH EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURAL BUILDING DAMAGES IN HALABJAH AND DARBANDIKHAN

  • WRYA ABDULLAH
  • SERWAN KHORSHEED RAFIQ
  • YOUNIS M. ALSHKANE
Keywords: Earthquake effects; Lessons learnt; Structural damages; Halabjah Earthquake

Abstract

Earthquakes hit the earth on daily basis with different intensities. An earthquake of M 7.3 hit
Halabjah on 12th of November 2017 and caused structural damages in both Halabjah and Darbandikhan.
This paper investigates the reflections of seismic effects on the most structural damages found in the areas
presenting a thorough site investigation on the possible reasons behind the building failures and collapses
and specifying the probable errors in their constructions and designs. Additionally, some of the most novel
techniques of retrofitting are proposed to rehabilitate the damages in the buildings. After the investigation,
it is deduced that, most of the structural failures can be attributed to lack of knowledge about lateral loads
and not considering them in the design and construction of the buildings in those vicinities. Further, the
construction level of the buildings can be considered as unsatisfactory in the affected areas for some
serious problems mentioned in detail in the paper. Therefore, most of the buildings needed immediate
rehabilitation and some of the most modern methods are proposed in doing so. As a result, it is proved
that a proper balance has to be guaranteed between strength, stiffness and ductility in designing buildings
to withstand lateral forces from an earthquake.

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Published
2021-01-04
How to Cite
ABDULLAH, W., RAFIQ, S. K., & ALSHKANE, Y. M. (2021). REFLECTIONS OF HALABJAH EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURAL BUILDING DAMAGES IN HALABJAH AND DARBANDIKHAN. Journal of Duhok University, 23(2), 321-341. Retrieved from https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/937