THE EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW CYCLES ON THE GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYEY SOIL TREATED WITH LIME

  • NIHAD BAHAALDEEN SALIH
  • TAVGA ARAM ABDALLA
Keywords: Cohesive soils, Hydrated Lime, Freeze–Thaw cycles, Durability

Abstract

Fine-grained soils (cohesive soils) exposed to freezing-thawing cycles exhibit to notable alterations on
their physical and mechanical characteristics. The environmental conditions' influences on soil
geotechnical properties are significant, especially when stabilized by hydrated lime. This study was
carried out to explore the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on cohesive soil stabilized by various hydrated lime
percentages (zero%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) by dry mass, which cured for 28 days at 30°C. One-dimensional
consolidations, unconfined strength, and shear box tests were performed for untreated and treated soil
samples subjected to 0, 1, 2, and 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Duplication of freeze-thaw cycles significantly
impacts some geotechnical properties and decreases them such as LL, UCS, Cc, Cr, and C. The PL and ϕ
values of the samples treated by hydrated lime and subjected to freeze-thaw cycles observed to be
increased, which were due to the important role of hydrated lime addition. It is concluded that the
hydrated lime can be effectively utilized to minimize the impacts of freeze-thaw periods on shear strength
and compressibility of cohesive soil.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aldaood, A., Bouasker, M., Al-Mukhtar, M., (2014).
Impact of Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Mechanical
behavior of Lime Stabilized Gypseous Soils.
Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol.
99, pp. 38-45.
Al-Kiki, I., Al-Attalla, M., Al-Zubaydi, A. (2011).
Long Term Strength and Durability of Clayey
Soil Stabilized with Lime. Eng. & Tech.
Journal, Vol. 29 (4), pp. 725-734.
Al-Mukhtar, M., Khattab, S., Alcover, J.F., (2012).
Microstructure and Geotechnical Properties of
Lime-Treated Expansive Clayey Soil.
Engineering Geology, 139-140, pp. 17-27.
Al-Rawas A. A., Hago A. W., and Al-Sarmi, H.,
(2005). Effect of Lime, Cement and Sarooj
(Artificial Pozzolan) on the Swelling Potential
of an Expansive Soil from Oman. Build
Environ, Vol. 40, pp. 681–687.
ASTM D2166 (2006). Standard Test Method for
Unconfined Compressive Strength of
Cohesive Soil. American Society for Testing
and Materials, Building Stones, ASTM
International, Philadelphia.
ASTM D2435 (2011). Standard Test Method for
One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of
Soils. American Society for Testing and
Materials, Vol. 04.08, ASTM International,
West Conshohocken. PA., pp. 1–10.
ASTM D4318 (2010). Standard Test Methods for
Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity
Index of Soils, American Society for Testing
and Materials, ASTM International, West
Conshohocken, Pa.
ASTM D560 (2016). Standard test methods for
freezing and thawing compacted soil-cement
mixtures. American Society for Testing and
Materials, ASTM International, West
Conshohocken, PA.
Bell, F.G., (1993). Engineering Treatment of Soils. E
& FN Spon Taylor & Francis Group, London,
UK.
Bin-Shafique, S., Rahman, K., Yaykiran, M., Azfar,
I., (2010). The long-Term Performance of
Two Fly Ash Stabilized Fine-Grained Soil
Subbases. Resources, Conservation and
Recycling, Vol. 54, pp. 666-672.
Broms, B. B., and Yao, L.Y.C., (1964). Shear
Strength of a Soil after Freezing and Thawing,
Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Div, Vol. 90 (SM4), pp. 1–25.
Eigenbrod, K. D., (1996). Effects of Cyclic Freezing
and Thawing on Volume Changes and
Permeability’s of Soft Fine-Grained Soils.
Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 33 (4), pp. 529–537.
Esna-Ashari, M., Jafari., M., (2012). Effect of Waste
Tire Cord Reinforcement on Unconfined
Compressive Strength of Lime Stabilized
Clayey Soil Under Freeze–Thaw Condition.
Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., Vol. 82, pp. 21-29.
Firoozi, A. A., Tahaa, M. R., Firoozi, A. A., and
Khan, T. A., (2015). The Influence of Freeze–
Thaw Cycles on Unconfined Compressive
Strength of Clay Soils Treated with Lime.
Journal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering),
Vol. 76(1), pp. 107–113.
Hohmann-Porebska, M. (2002). Microfabric Effects
in Frozen Clays in Relation to Geotechnical
Parameters. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 21, pp.
77-87.
Hohmann-Porebska, M., (2002). Microfabric Effects
in Frozen Clays in Relation to Geotechnical
Parameters. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 21(1-
2), pp. 77–87.
Hotineanu, A., Bouasker, M., Aldaood, A., Al-
Mukhtar, M., (2015). Effect of Freeze-Thaw
Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of
Lime-Stabilized Expansive Clays. Cold
Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 119,
pp. 151-157.
Kamei, T., Ahmed, A., Shibi, T., (2012). Effect of
Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Durability and
Strength of very Soft Clay Soil Stabilized with
Recycled Bassanite. Cold Regions Science and
Technology, Vol. 82. pp. 124-129.
Konrad, J. M., (1989). Physical Processes during
Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Clayey Silts. Cold
Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 16 (3),
pp. 291-303.
Konrad, J. M., (1989). Physical Processes during
Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Clayey Silts. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 16 – 3, pp.
291-303.
Li, G., Ma, W., Zhao, S., Mao, Y. and Mu, Y. (2012).
Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Mechanical
Behavior of Compacted Fine-Grained Soil.
ASCE Cold Regions Engineering, pp. 72-81.
Liu, J. K., D. Chang, and Yu, Q. M., (2016).
Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on
Mechanical Properties of a Silty Sand. Eng.
Geol, Vol. 210, pp. 23–32.
Locat, J., Tremblay, H., Leroueil, S., (1996).
Mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a soft
inorganic clay treated with lime. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 654-669.
Paudel, B., and Wang, B., (2010). Coefficient of
consolidation of the soils from the Mackenzie
valley. GeoCal 2010 Paper, 185, pp. 992-996,
URL: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-
992.pdf.
Qi, J., Vermeer, P.A., Cheng, G., (2006). A Review
of the Influence of Freeze–Thaw Cycles on
soil Geotechnical Properties. Permafrost and
Periglacial Process, Vol. 17, pp. 245–252.
Shareef A. H., (2016). Investigation of Cement with
Lime as Stabilized Materials for Soft Soils.
M.Sc. thesis, Building and Construction
Engineering Department University of
Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
Viklander, P., Eigenbrod, D., (2000). Stone
Movements and Permeability Changes in Till
Caused by Freezing and Thawing. Cold
Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 31, pp.
151–162.
Wang, D. y., Ma, W., Niu, Y. h., Chang, X. X., and
Wen, Z., (2007). Effects of cyclic freezing and
thawing on mechanical properties of Qinghai-
Tibet clay. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol, Vol. 48
(1), pp. 34–43.
Wang, X., Yang, P., Wang, H., and Dai, H., (2009).
Experimental Study on Effects of Freezing and
Thawing on Mechanical Properties of Clay.
Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,
Vol. 31, pp. 1768-1772.
Yao, M., Wang Q., Ma, B., Liu Y., Qingbo Yu, and
Han, Y., (2020). Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycle
on Shear Strength of Lime-Solidified
Dispersion Soils. Civil Engineering Journal,
Vol. 6 (1), pp. 114-129.
Yildiz, M., Sogancı, A.S., Demiroz, A., Albayrak, V.,
(2004). The Effect of Freezing–Thawing
Action on the Strength and Permeability
Behavior of Lime Stabilized Clay Soil. 10th
National Congress on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.
227–236, (In Turkish Language).
Yong, R. N., P. Boonsinsuk, and Yin, C. W. P.,
(1985). Alteration of Soil Behavior after
Cyclic Freezing and Thawing. Proc. 4
th Int.
Symp. Ground Freezing. Singapore, pp. 187-
195.
Zhnag W., Guo, A., and Lin, C., (2019). Effects of
Cyclic Freeze and Thaw on Engineering
Properties of Compacted Loess and Lime-
Stabilized Loess. J. Mater. Civ. Eng, Vol.
31(9), pp.1-12.
Rashed K. A., Salih N. B., and Abdalla T. A. (2017).
Correlation of Consistency and
Compressibility Properties of Soils in
Sulaimani City. Sulaimani Journal for
Engineering Sciences, Vol. 4 (5), pp. 87-95.
Salih N. B., (2020). Geotechnical characteristics
correlations for fine-grained soils. IOP Conf.
Ser: Master. Sci. Eng. 737 012099.
Xian S., Lu Z., Yao H., Ran Fang R., and She J.
(2019). Comparative Study on Mechanical
Properties of Compacted Clay under Freeze-
Thaw Cycles with Closed and Open Systems.
Advances in Materials Science and
Engineering, pp. 1-
13.https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9206372.
Published
2021-01-05
How to Cite
SALIH, N. B., & ABDALLA, T. A. (2021). THE EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW CYCLES ON THE GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYEY SOIL TREATED WITH LIME. Journal of Duhok University, 23(2), 454-463. Retrieved from https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/950