GROUNDWATER CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSMENT IN KURDISTAN REGION PROVINCES-IRAQ: A REVIEW

  • DARA MUHAMMAD HAWEZ
  • NASHWAN SHAWKAT MIZZOURI
  • SHUOKR QARANI AZIZ
  • JWAN SABAH MUSTAFA
  • SHWANA BRAIM HASSAN MANGURI
Keywords: Groundwater, characteristics, drinking water, kriging method, Kurdistan Region, Iraq,

Abstract

Over the past decades, drilling wells and groundwater extraction for agricultural, domestic, and
industrial purposes is growing at a high rate in Kurdistan Region-Iraq, meaning that groundwater
becomes one primary water source. Increased demand for water and over-exploitation and unsustainable
practices severely deteriorate groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the water quality. In the
past years, many papers have been published on groundwater quality in the Kurdistan Region. Thus, this
research aims to review, evaluates and summarizes the results of published papers concerning
groundwater characteristics in Erbil, Suliamni, Duhok, and Halabja, Governorates. This work targets
about thirty published papers. These papers focused on Wells, Springs, and karizes (qanats) as
groundwater. The water testes have taken from different cities and locations in these three governorates.
The reviewed studies considered a number of water parameters and chemical elements, such as
physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and radioactive substances. This work assesses water quality
parameters from reviewed studies and illustrates the comment parameters by the spatial distribution
mapped using the kriging method. Generally, the groundwater polluted in some zones in the Kurdistan
Region and normally it can be used for drinking and domestic uses after the disinfection process.

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Published
2021-01-06
How to Cite
HAWEZ, D. M., MIZZOURI, N. S., AZIZ, S. Q., MUSTAFA, J. S., & MANGURI, S. B. H. (2021). GROUNDWATER CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSMENT IN KURDISTAN REGION PROVINCES-IRAQ: A REVIEW. Journal of Duhok University, 23(2), 546-583. Retrieved from https://journal.uod.ac/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/958